Systems Engineering An Introduction for Planners, Project Development Engineers and Project Managers
Introduction How Systems Engineering (SE) will be applied to planning, designing, and implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) projects. • What is Systems Engineering • Why use Systems Engineering • What are Intelligent Transportation Systems • FHWA Rule 940.11 • ITS Project Development Process • SE and ITS Architecture compliance Certification
Learning Outcomes • Identify the principles of SE • List benefits of using SE • Describe similarities between the SE process and the traditional project development process • Explain in general terms the federal requirements for SE Analysis
FHWA Rule 940.11 Rule 940.11 states that “the systems engineering analysis shall include at a minimum: • Identification of portions of the regional ITS architecture being implemented; • Identification of participating agencies roles and responsibilities; • Requirements definitions; • Analysis of alternative system configurations and technology options to meet requirements; • Procurement options; • Identification of applicable ITS standards and testing procedures; and • Procedures and resources necessary for operations and management of the system”.
What is Systems Engineering “Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. It focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem” (INCOSE).
Why use System Engineering • Reduces the risk of schedule and cost overruns. • Increases the likelihood that implementation will meet the user’s needs. • Improved stakeholder participation. • More adaptable, resilient systems. • Verified functionality and fewer defects. • Higher level of reuse from one project to the next. • Better documents.
Why use System Engineering (cont.) The Standish Group CHAOS Report
What is ITS “ITS improves transportation safety and mobility and enhances American productivity through the integration of advanced communications technologies into the transportation infrastructure and in vehicles. Intelligent transportation Systems (ITS) encompass a broad range of wireless and wire line communications-based information and electronics technologies” (RITA).
Two Types Of ITS Projects • Low-Risk ITS • Higher-Risk ITS
Low-RiskITS Projects • Single jurisdiction, single mode • No software creation; Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) or proven software • Proven, COTS hardware & communications • No new interfaces • System requirements well defined, documented • Operating procedures well documented • Uses only stable technologies
Example Of Low-Risk ITS Project “Add 4 Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras to surveillance system with 10 existing cameras” Risk factors that apply: • Single jurisdiction; single mode • No software creation; COTS or proven software • Proven, commercially available technology • No external interfaces; duplication of existing • System requirements well defined, documented • Uses only stable technologies
Higher-Risk ITS Projects • Multi-Jurisdictional or Multi-modal • New Software Creation • New Hardware Integration • New Technology Applications • New Interfaces - especially to external systems • System Requirements not well understood • Likely technology changes
Example Of Higher-Risk ITS Project “Share control of existing CCTV cameras between State DOT and adjoining City” Risk factors that apply: • Multi-Jurisdictional, Multimodal • New Software Creation; New Hardware Integration • New Technology Applications • New Interfaces - especially to external systems • System Requirements not well understood • Need to account for technology evolution
Non-ITS Project Non-ITS projects include: • Temporary work zones • Arrow boards • Portable/Temporary Dynamic Message Signs (PDMS) • Cell phones • Elements exempted on the ITS check list (i.e. Conduit)
Example ITS Categories • Arterial Management • Freeway Management • Road Weather Management • Roadway Operations and Maintenance • Travel Information
Arterial Management Systems • Surveillance (sensors, cameras) • Traffic Control (adaptive signal control) • Lane Management (available capacity) • Parking Management (availability of parking) • Information Dissemination (location specific) • Enforcement • Special Events Transportation Management
Freeway Management Systems • Surveillance (sensors, cameras) • Ramp Control (ramp metering) • Lane Management (variable speed limit) • Special Events Transportation Management • Information Dissemination (message board) • Enforcement
Road Weather Management • Surveillance, Monitoring, and Prediction (pavement conditions, atmospheric conditions, icing and water levels) • Information Dissemination (DMS, internet, wireless, radios) • Traffic Control (variable speed limits, traffic signal control, vehicle restrictions) • Response and Treatment (fixed and mobile winter maintenance)
Roadway Operations and Maintenance • Information Dissemination (Message boards, highway advisory radio, internet/wireless/radio) • Asset Management (Fleet management, infrastructure management) • Work Zone / Incident Management (HELP trucks, lane control, variable speed limits, road closure management)
Travel Information Systems • Pre-Trip Information (Internet/wireless, 511, TV/radio) • En-Route Information (Wireless, In-vehicle systems) • Tourism and Events (Travel services, advance parking)
The “V” Systems Engineering Model Project Planning Project Manager Project Development Engineer Integration and Recomposition Decomposition and Definition
What Has to be Documented for Project Development High Level Design Detailed Design
What Has to be Documented for Project Management Detailed Testing High Level Testing
Responsibilities • Include ITS in the project development process –ITS Bureau/PDE/PM • Verify Systems Engineering is getting done to protect project timeline – PDE/PM • Fill out the SE Certification – ITS Bureau/ DOT/Local Lead • Fill out the SE Certification for Non-ITS projects – Not Required • Systems Engineering Documentation development – ITS Bureau/Contractor/DOT • Certification of Systems Engineering – DOT and FHWA
SE and Architecture ComplianceCertification Sections Section 1. Project Information -For all ITS projects Section 2. MPO and Planning Data -For all ITS projects Section 3. Project Implementation and Design -For all non-exempt ITS projects
Systems Engineering Certification • SE is required for projects with state or federal funding;and recommended for local projects without federal funding. • ITS Bureau submits SE certification with PS&E. • For state projects, typically NMDOT ITS Bureau will submit to FHWA certification for documentation. • For local lead projects, contact NMDOT ITS Bureau.
List of Links from the Presentation More information about ITS http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/int_its_deployment/index.htm “V” diagram http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/cadiv/segb/views/process/index.htm FHWA’s Systems Engineering Guidebook http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/seitsguide/seguide.pdf NMDOT ITS Bureau http://nmshtd.state.nm.us/main.asp?secid=11193