Field sampling and analyses: Alvin and 2007 ROV cruise
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Field sampling and analyses: Alvin and 2007 ROV cruise Part 1: Overview (a look at the forest, before the trees). Field Activities by Study Type. Descriptive studies Species present (and biogeographic patterns) Community descriptions Visitations by mobile fauna Chemistry surveys

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Field sampling and analyses: Alvin and 2007 ROV cruisePart 1: Overview(a look at the forest, before the trees)


Field activities by study type
Field Activities by Study Type

Descriptive studies

Species present (and biogeographic patterns)

Community descriptions

Visitations by mobile fauna

Chemistry surveys

Geological characterizations

Microbial community descriptions

Process oriented studies

Trophic interactions

Growth rates and growth patterns

Microbial activities

Temporal change

Result is a better understanding of the reasons for differences between sites and communities and why they change


Field activities by site type
Field activities by site type

Preliminary Survey Sites

Inventory of community types

Inventory of species present

Overview of geology

Overview of geochemistry

Overview of microbiology

Limited quantitative and targeted collections

Intensive Study Sites

All of the above, and…


Field activities by site type1
Field activities by site type

  • Intensive Study Sites (All of the above, and…)

  • Chemical surveys nested within community mosaics

    • Community mosaics, pushcores, and collections nested

    • within high resolution geological maps from AUV surveys

  • Time Lapse Camera deployments

  • Visitation by mobile vagrants and colonists

  • Imagery of study sites

  • Trapping of mobile fauna

  • On and off site

  • Trophic studies

  • Within aggregations and links to “normal” fauna

  • Tubeworm (or coral) growth studies

  • Changes between years (mosaics and chemistry)

  • Mussel symbiont studies

  • More extensive targeted and quantitative collections


  • Field activities by year
    Field activities by year

    First field season

    Work at 4 intensive and 3 preliminary study sites

    Compose inventories (from collections)

    Megafauna/Macrofauna

    Meiofauna

    Microbiology

    Geological

    Construct Maps and Mosaics

    Chemistry surveys

    Stain Tubeworms

    Deploy RTLC systems


    Field activities by year1
    Field activities by year

    Second field season

    Complement and finish all necessary

    sampling at sites initiated in 2006

    Repeat mosaics

    Repeat Chemistry surveys as appropriate

    Collect stained tubeworms

    Collect all deployments

    Characterize additional sites as time allows.


    Field sampling and analyses alvin and 2007 rov cruise part 1 some details a quick look at the trees
    Field sampling and analyses: Alvin and 2007 ROV cruisePart 1: Some Details(a quick look at the trees)


    Collection and census of fauna
    Collection and Census of fauna

    • Quantitative collections whenever possible

      • Bushmaster (Tubeworms and corals)

      • Mussel pots (Mussels, clams, and ?)

    • Targeted collections (manipulators, suction, nets)

      • Attached fauna

      • Mobile fauna

    • Traps, trawling

    • Imagery

      • Mosaics

      • RTLC

      • Targeted


    Quantitative collections bushmaster
    Quantitative collections: Bushmaster

    • Bushmaster Jr has been used by the JSL’s, Alvin, and Ropos

    • Bushmaster Jr has been used for vent and seep tubeworms and corals

    • A single collection from the Juan de Fuca Ridge contained:

    • 49 distinct taxa

    • From 8 phyla

    • 4,329 tubeworms

    • 95,000 individuals of a snail (Depressigyra globulus)

    • Over 50,000 individuals of other species




    Quantitative collections mussel pots
    Quantitative collections: Mussel Pots

    • The mussel pots are new, but based on a design used extensively by Dr. Cindy Van Dover

    • Used by Jason II in the Lau Basin in June

    • Up to six have been used in a singe dive

    • The new design is very robust and deploys a ring that allows quantification of “missed” fauna

    • A single collection from Lau contained:

      • 76 Ifremeria, 4 Alvinoconcha, and 2 Bathymodiolus (all foundation species

      • At least 9 other species of megafauna (5 gastropods, 2 crustaceans, and 2 polychaetes)

      • A bunch more… (small stuff is not sorted yet)




    Processing the quantitative collections
    Processing the quantitative collections

    • Identification, enumeration and biomass of all fauna (Wet weight and AFDW)

    • Additional measurements/analyses of foundation species

      • (Surface area, Size frequency)

    • Subsampling

      • Taxonomy/systematics (molecular and classical)

      • Phylogenetics/population genetics

      • Trophic studies

      • Symbiont studies (types, phylogenetics)


    Processing the quantitative collections1
    Processing the quantitative collections

    • Shipboard processing

      • Preliminary identifications

      • Sorting and enumeration as time allows

      • Wet Weights (On MCSB as time allows)

      • Subsampling

    • Laboratory processing

      • Final identifications

      • Additional measurements of foundation species

        • (and processing of additional small attached species)

      • AFDW of selected individuals for conversion factors


    Taxonomy phylogenetics pop genetics
    Taxonomy+ (phylogenetics/pop genetics)

    • Key Groups for Biogeography

    • Tubeworms (siboglinids) and symbionts (PSU)

    • Mussels (PSU)

      • Mussel symbionts (Nicole Dublier)

    • Polynoid polychaetes (Stephane Hourdez)

    • Vesicomyid clams and limpets (Robert Vrijenhoek)

    • Hard corals (Lophelia in particular; Cheryl Morrison)

    • Shrimp (Tim Shank)

    • Ophiuroids (Sabine Stohr)


    Taxonomy phylogenetics pop gen
    Taxonomy+ (phylogenetics/pop gen)

    • Our general approach

    • Start with standard genes that would identify new species (eg; mtCOI, mt16S for animals, 16S for symbionts).

    • If new group, then additional (more conserved) genes to place it appropriately (rDNA 18S, 28S, EF1alpha)

    • If known species with potential geographic isolation, then additional (more variable) genes to constrain degree of geographic isolation (mtND4, ITS2, microsatallites, introns)


    Analyses of communities
    Analyses of Communities

    • Community Trophic Structure

      • Tissue stable C, N and S content

      • Knowledge of feeding mode (when known)

      • Interpreted in the context of quantitative data

    • Supplemented by analysis of interactions with more mobile background fauna

    • Result will be well constrained food webs


    Analyses of communities1
    Analyses of Communities

    Correlations between community type

    and density to:

    • Depth

    • Geography

    • Geophysics

    • Geochemistry

    • Microbiology

    • Gas chemistry


    Analyses of communities2
    Analyses of Communities

    • Comparisons between communities:

      • Site to site

      • Upper slope to lower slope

      • GoM to Atlantic (and the rest of the world)

      • Tubeworms to mussels to corals etc.

      • Young to old (successional changes?)


    Temporal studies
    Temporal studies

    • Sclerochronology (Dr. R. E. Dodge)

    • Vestimentiferan growth rates and ages

    • Time Lapse Cameras

    • Establishment of long term monitoring stations (mosaics and chemistry)


    Lophelia pertusa branch collected in 1886 aboard the steamer albatross
    Lophelia pertusa BranchCollected in 1886 Aboard the Steamer Albatross

    Sclerochronology


    Lophelia pertusa sectioned longitudinally 1 mm thick
    Lophelia pertusasectioned longitudinally (1 mm thick)

    Sclerochronology

    REFLECTIVE

    TRANSMISSIVE

    X-RADIOGRAPHIC


    Sclerochronology
    Sclerochronology

    Three controls on carbonate stable isotopes in Lophelia skeleton


    Vestimentiferan growth
    Vestimentiferan Growth

    The stainer in action



    Uls tubeworm growth models
    ULS Tubeworm Growth Models

    L. luymesi

    S. jonesi


    Submergence asset pros and cons
    Submergence asset Pros and Cons

    • Alvin and Jason II were both designed and used extensively for science, and have inherent advantages as a result:

    • Very high quality navigation (general and inertial)

    • Very experienced pilots for delicate work

    • One “strong” and one force-feedback manipulator

    • Several excellent imaging systems

    • Very adaptable work platforms

    • Extensive experience with user-supplied equipment


    Submergence asset pros and cons1
    Submergence asset Pros and Cons

    • Alvin over Jason II

    • We know how to use it (experience)

    • PI spatial understanding of sites (two eyes and 3D vision)

    • Heavy lifting

    • More work accomplished per unit bottom time

    • Jason II over Alvin

    • Significantly increased bottom time (24 hr operations)

    • Closed loop navigational control for mosaics/surveys

    • Observers can rotate during a dive

    • No HOV related safety concerns

      • (limitations on diving near a platform, working with implodable volumes, untested gear, etc.)


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