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Swine Production. Fall, 2009 ANSC 4401 John J. McGlone, PhD Professor. In what ways are pigs in the news?. Swine Influenza. July, 2009. How is this H1N1 different?. From Time Magazine, July 09. Why the concern now?. From Time Magazine, July 09. Is this our image?.

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Swine production

Swine Production

Fall, 2009

ANSC 4401

John J. McGlone, PhD


Swine influenza
Swine Influenza

July, 2009

How is this h1n1 different
How is this H1N1 different?

From Time Magazine, July 09

Why the concern now
Why the concern now?

From Time Magazine, July 09

Is this our image
Is this our image?

Getting Real About the High Price of Cheap Food

By Bryan Walsh Friday, Aug. 21, 2009

“Somewhere in Iowa, a pig is being raised in a confined pen, packed in so tightly with other swine that their curly tails have been chopped off so they won't bite one another. To prevent him from getting sick in such close quarters, he is dosed with antibiotics. The waste produced by the pig and his thousands of pen mates on the factory farm where they live goes into manure lagoons that blanket neighboring communities with air pollution and a stomach-churning stench….”


History of the pig domestication
History of the PigDomestication

  • 40 million years ago:

    Giant Pig

  • Branches into ruminants & Suidae

  • 9000+ years ago

  • Indonesia (or Europe)

History of the pig

History of the pig

Place in the animal kingdom:

Phylum: Mammalia

Order: Artiodactyla

Sub-order: Suina

(hippos & peccaries)

Family: Suidae

(pigs; babyrousa, warthog, etc.)

Genus: Sus

(bearded pig, pigmy hog, warty hog, etc.)

Species: scrofa

German swine forest or wild housing hutewald
German “Swine Forest”or “Wild Housing” Hutewald

History of the pig1
History of the Pig

  • 9000+ years ago; Humans in caves/huts with pigs nearby

  • by 3,000-4,000 BC Persian*, Egyptian, Chinese & desert civilizations all ate pork & pigs were an important part of their culture

  • Pig herds spread West and North in Eurasia

* Muhammad lived 570-632 AD

History of the pig2
History of the Pig

  • Jewish, Islamic and some Hindu sects stopped eating pork; reasons included

    • nomadic cultures not as suited to pigs as to cattle/sheep/camels

    • pigs ate waste products and were considered unhealthy

    • pork could contain parasites that made people sick

What is the image of pigs in today s world

What is the image of pigs in today’s world?

What was the industry image in Biblical times?

Pigs were critical in history
Pigs Were Critical in History

  • Ancient Persia

  • Ancient Egypt

  • Ancient Greece

  • Roman Empire

  • Celtic nations

  • Colonizing nations (Spain, UK, Dutch, etc.)

  • Today

Pigs in historical art
Pigs in Historical Art

  • Greek pig sculptures & drawing on a plate

  • circa 500 BC; Louvre, Paris

History of the pig3
History of the Pig

  • The Roman Empire improved pig breeding and spread pigs

  • Two types were developed:

    • Large, floppy ears, much lard

    • Smaller, erect ears, for meat

Iberian pigs from modern-day Spain

History of the pig4
History of the Pig

By the 1500s:

  • In the North, Celtic people bred large-bodied, well-muscled pigs

  • In Southern Europe, Iberians developed smaller-framed, lard-type pigs

  • All pigs of the day were dark colored

History of the pig5
History of the Pig

Sea-going explorers used live pigs (domestic and wild):

  • to eat along the way

  • to supply seedstock for new colonies

  • to hunt on a later visit

    Explorers used pork in the form of:

  • salt pork

  • cured pork

Usa phases of growth in pig s
USA Phases of Growth in Pig #s

  • Phase 1 -- The early settlers(colonial days)

  • Phase 2 -- 1776 to 1865(pigs move west)

  • Phase 3 -- 1865 to 1995(pigs with grain)

  • Phase 4 -- Now and futurea. Away from peopleb. Away from waterwaysc. Biosecurity concerns

World meat situation
World Meat Situation

Pork is the #1 meat eaten in the world

  • Pork 106 million metric tons

  • Beef 65 million metric tons

  • Poultry 95 million metric tons

Meat production in 1969 2009 and projected for 2030
Meat Production in 1969, 2009 and Projected for 2030

* % change in 2009 compared with 1969

** FAO estimate from 2003

2003 & 2009 FAO reports



Pig meat production metric tonnes 2007
Pig meat production metric tonnes, 2007

Largest meat exporters millions of tonnes 2008
Largest Meat Exportersmillions of tonnes, 2008

Swine production

Who is exporting pork?

FAO 2009:


Usa import export of pork
USA Import-Export of Pork

USA exports are rising!

Usa grain producing areas
USA Grain Producing Areas

Usa pig numbers 2009 selected states march 1 2009 usda
USA Pig Numbers 2009(selected states) March 1, 2009 USDA

Swine production

The USA Breeding Herd is shrinking in numbers

…But herd productivity is increasing and more pork is being produced with fewer sows

Swine production

Corn prices were very high last year; they are lower now and we expect a large corn crop

… But price for pigs is still below break even by $20/pig or more

Break even

Swine production

Hog farms have lost money, on average, for the last 40 months and will do so for at least another 8 months (until summer of 2010)

Sows on large farms
Sows on large farms months and will do so for at least another 8 months (until summer of 2010)

  • In September, 2006, Smithfield bought PSF

  • Triumph Foods includes 5 or more producers


Production technologies
Production Technologies (growth was from 1990-2000)

  • Cattle & Sheep are more often grazed

  • Pigs & Poultry are more intensified

Alternative technologies
Alternative Technologies (growth was from 1990-2000)

Modern farms
Modern Farms (growth was from 1990-2000)

Dramatic changes in global meat production could increase risk of diseases

Livestock producers should invest more in biosecurity and disease monitoring

17 September 2007, Rome - Global animal food production is undergoing a major transformation that could lead to a higher risk of disease transmission from animals to humans, FAO warned today.


Flow in modern pork production units
Flow in modern (growth was from 1990-2000)pork production units

Life cycle pork production
Life Cycle Pork Production (growth was from 1990-2000)

Production schedules
Production schedules (growth was from 1990-2000)

  • Based on a 20 or 21 week cycle

  • 20 groups of sows would be on a weekly schedule

  • Each week one group farrows another is weaned and another is bred

  • Shorter lactation length results in more litters per sow per year (up to a point)

What drives production
What drives production? (growth was from 1990-2000)

  • Lower the cost

  • Increase pigs per sow per year

    • Increase farrowing or conception rate

    • Increase litter size

  • Increase weight gain

  • Improve feed efficiency

  • Improve animal health

    • Morbidity

    • Mortality

The psf tx experience
The PSF-TX Experience (growth was from 1990-2000)

The mff laverne experience
The MFF-Laverne Experience (growth was from 1990-2000)

Benefits of pigs to the region
Benefits of Pigs to the Region (growth was from 1990-2000)

  • Kids and grand kids can stay here

  • Community prospers

  • Land values increase

  • Local grain and land have added value

  • Local multiplication of economic effect

  • Rural lifestyle can be protected

Change in pig industry
Change in pig industry (growth was from 1990-2000)

  • Virtually no small, family commercial farms

  • Show pigs are a different industry in the USA and this is especially strong in Texas

  • Pork is a commodity or in a niche

  • Little opportunity to start a commercial pig farm and be successful in the USA

  • Great opportunities to work for corporations

  • International opportunities abound in Latin America, Eastern Europe and Asia

Restructured usa pig industry
Restructured USA Pig Industry (growth was from 1990-2000)

  • About 50% of the pigs now come from very large farms, primarily corporations

  • The mid-sized farms are less competitive and therefore are exiting the industry

  • Society is concerned about:

    • The loss of the family farm

    • Pollution

    • Animal welfare

    • Food safety, etc.

  • The flip-side societal concern is: how will we feed 10 billion people?