Muslim Gunpowder Dynasties 1300–1700. Three great Muslim powers—the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires—emerge between 1300 and 1600. The Muslim world experienced a Golden Age of Culture (like the Renaissance) It also experienced religious conflict (like the Reformation)
Three great Muslim powers—the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires—emerge between 1300 and 1600.
The Muslim world experienced a Golden Age of Culture (like the Renaissance)
It also experienced religious conflict (like the Reformation)
Refer to your note packet
Suleyman the Lawgiver.
Empire Building: Three of the great empires of history—the Ottomans in Turkey, the Safavids in Persia, and the Mughals in India—emerged in the Muslim world between the 14th and the 18th centuries.
Cultural Diffusion: As powerful societies moved to expand their empires, Turkish, Persian, Mongol, and Arab ways of life blended. The result was a flowering of Islamic culture that peaked in the 16th century.
Power & Authority: The rulers of all three great Muslim empires of this era based their authority on Islam. They based their power on strong armies, advanced technology, and loyal administrative officers.
Mark the locations of the three empires using the next slide
The Ottomans established a Muslim empire that combined many cultures and lasted for more than 600 years.
▪ Built a small state in Anatolia (Turkey) between 1300 and 1326 and began rule of the Ottomans
▪ Was a unifier of the Turkish tribes
▪ Turks became ghazis, or warriors for Islam
▪ Osman’s successors used the title of Sultan, or overlord (king, emperor, ruler).
▪ Came to power in 1451
▪ Called Mehmet the Conqueror because he captured Constantinople (1453)
(See Mankind video, New World, Fall of Constantinople)
The predicted fall of Constantinople. Print (19th century), Panagiotis Zografos.
▪ Overthrew his father
▪ Executed his nephews and all but one of his sons
▪ Defeated Safavids of Persia
▪ Conquered Syria, Palestine, the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, and Egypt
Selim the Grim
▪ Empire reaches its greatest height
▪ Took control of the eastern Mediterranean and North Africa coastline
▪ Divided empire into administrative units
▪ Organized laws of the empire
▪ Supported the arts, architecture, and learning (a Golden Age)
▪ Called Suleiman the Magnificent, Suleiman the Lawgiver
▪ #100 on the Millennium List of Influential People
▪ Conquered most of what is now Iran
▪ Took ancient Persian title of Shah
▪ Made Shia Islam the state religion
* Difference between Sunni and Shia Islam
▪ Became a religious tyrant who executed people who would not convert
▪ Caused conflict between Shia and Sunni Muslims that continues today
▪ Identification as Sunni was not emphasized by Ottomans until Safavids emphasized Shia Islam
Came to power in 1587
▪ Promoted cultural blending in his empire
▪ Established relations with Europe
▪ Invited Chinese artisan to his court
▪ Based government on Ottoman model
▪ Like Suleiman, presided over a Golden Age
▪ Loved learning, but was illiterate. Had books read to him
▪ Encouraged debate among priests and scholars
▪ Practiced religious tolerance
▪ Ruled through a bureaucracy of both Hindu and Muslim officials
▪ Practiced cultural blending
▪ Encouraged arts, architecture, and literature
▪ A Golden Age ruler
▪ A new language, Urdu, is created
▪ Ordered the building of the Taj Mahal
▪ The building depleted the empire’s resources
▪ People were heavily taxed and denied important services
(See Mankind video, Treasure, Uncountable Wealth)
Taj Mahal and reflecting pool. White-marble mausoleum complex (17th century), Agra, India.