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ICLEAC Survey Presentation I nstability C ontrol of L ow E mission A ero-Engine C ombustors. 4 year program started March 1 2000. G4RD-CT-2000-0215 R&T project within the 5 th Framework program of the European Union:. Presented by: L. Hernandez Turbomeca.

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icleac survey presentation i nstability c ontrol of l ow e mission a ero engine c ombustors
ICLEAC Survey PresentationInstability Control of Low Emission Aero-Engine Combustors

4 year program started March 1 2000

G4RD-CT-2000-0215

R&T project within the 5th Framework program of the European Union:

Presented by:

L. Hernandez

Turbomeca

icleac survey presentation i nstability c ontrol of l ow e mission a ero engine c ombustors1
ICLEAC Survey PresentationInstability Control of Low Emission Aero-Engine Combustors

Agenda

Partners

Mission

Organisation

Experiments and Measurements

Calculations

Exploitation and Dissemination

Questions

icleac partners
ICLEAC Partners

Turbomeca F

MTU D

Rolls-Royce Deutschland D

Snecma F

Rolls-Royce UK

AVIO S.p.A. I

QINETIQ UK

CERFACS F

CNRS/DR5/EM2C F

Cranfield University UK

Karlsruhe University - EBI D

Munich University - TDM D

Genova University - DIMSET I

UCAM-DENG UK

icleac mission
ICLEAC Mission

Low Emissions Combustion Instabilities

  • Treatment of CI today: a posteriori
    • expensive and time consuming
      • re-design
      • tests
  • Objective: being able to deal with the problem a priori
    • Concept phase
      • Design Rules
      • Low Order Models
    • Development phase
      • Heavy CFD methods: URANS* and LES*

* Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes

* Large Eddy Simulation

icleac mission1
ICLEAC Mission
  • Measurements
    • Injector Aerodynamics and spray databases (steady and unsteady)
    • Flame Transfer Functions (FTF) in simple and engine like sector rigs
    • Generic and real engine geometry thermo acoustics and mixing
  • Calculations
    • FTF calculated by URANS and LES
    • URANS and LES development
  • Tools
    • Design rules
    • Low Order Model (LOM)
    • URANS and LES
icleac organisation
ICLEAC Organisation

5 Work Packages

  • WP1 Management and exploitation
  • WP2 Unsteady behaviour of Fluid-dynamic LP*/LPP* injection systems
  • WP3 Measurement of Transfer Functions
  • WP4 Combustion Instabilities Prediction
  • WP5 Advanced 2 and 3D diagnostics on combustors

4 year program started March 1 2000

  • Final report April 2004

* Lean Premixed

* Lean Pre-vaporised Premixed

icleac experiments and measurements
ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

Loudspeakers

‘2D’ atmospheric combustion rig

  • ambient air temperature inlet
  • acoustic excitation
  • modular design
  • Optical access
  • PLIF*, Chemiluminescence (OH, CH, C2 radicals)
  • FTF derivation

Microphones

Adiabatic Walls

Optical Access

Hot Wire

FUEL INLET

* Planer Laser Induced Fluorescence

icleac experiments and measurements1
ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

Atmospheric Injector Spray

Rig

  • Optical access
  • Acoustic excitation
  • PDA* and LSD* for droplet size, velocity, and concentration measurement in dense sprays
  • Spray FTF derivation

* Phase Doppler Anemometry

* Laser Sheet Drop sizing

icleac experiments and measurements2
ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

Injector spray test rig

  • 3 bar
  • 300-500 K
  • Acoustic excitation
  • Optical access
  • PDA and LSD for droplet size, velocity, and concentration measurement in dense sprays
  • Spray FTF derivation
icleac experiments and measurements3
ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

Large scale injector test

rig

  • Atmospheric
  • Acoustic excitation
  • Optical access
  • LDV*, PIV*
  • Derivation of 3D velocity field and turbulence

* Laser Doppler Velocimetry

* Particle Imaging Velocimetry

icleac experiments and measurements4
ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

Atmospheric Combustion Rig

  • T3 770 K
  • Acoustic excitation
  • Optical access
  • OHChemiluminescence
  • FTF derivation
icleac experiments and measurements5
ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

Atmospheric Combustion

Rig

  • T3 800 K
  • Acoustic excitation
  • Optical access
  • PIV, Mie scattering, OHChemiluminescence
  • Derivation of flow/spray field and FTF
icleac experiments and measurements6
ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

High Pressure

Combustion Rig

  • P3 40 bar
  • T3 800 K
  • Acoustic excitation
  • Optical access
  • PIV, OH Chemiluminescence
icleac experiments and measurements7

Pressure

measurement

Pressure casing

LPP Burner

CH sampling

probe

Airflow

Silencer

Combustor

Internal ductwork

Variable frequency

Siren

ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

Atmospheric &

High Pressure

Combustion Rig

  • P3 15 bar
  • T3 800 K
  • Acoustic excitation
  • FTF derivation from fast response pressure measurements and CH Chemiluminescence
icleac calculations
ICLEAC Calculations

Low-Order Model

  • Linear model for combustion instability
  • Gives frequency and stability predictions
  • Fast enough to be used at design stage
icleac calculations1
ICLEAC Calculations

CFD applied to rumble

  • Mechanism of self-excited oscillation
  • Identification of flame transfer function
  • Integration of CFD and low-order models

Pressure

Time

exploitation and dissemination rr uk rrd
Exploitation and DisseminationRR-UK & RRD
  • Single sector test rigs
  • atmospheric
  • low pressure < 3 bar
  • intermediate pressure < 15 bar
  • Flame characterization
  • Flame transfer functions
  • Spray transfer functions
  • LPP modules
  • delay time
  • effective area
  • Air blast burners

CRANFIELD / QINETIQ / TD-Munich

  • CFD simulations
  • 2D & 3D geometries
  • numerical FTF
  • self-excitation
  • LOM
  • 1D geometry
  • implementation of FTF
  • validation

UCAM

ICLEAC

  • Multi-Link Flow Network
  • in-house application
  • integration of LOM
  • validation
  • CFD simulations
  • in-house application
  • best practice
  • validation

RR-UK large engines

RRD medium engines

exploitation and dissemination example lom results of rb211 dle industrial combustion system
Exploitation and Dissemination ExampleLOM results of RB211 DLE industrial combustion system

Combustor Mode

Unstable Mode

Frequency

x (m)

exploitation and dissemination avio s p a
Exploitation and DisseminationAVIO S.p.A
  • Laboratory
  • LPP double swirler injector of AVIO design
  • large scale model
  • same Re number
  • original and modified geometries
  • Measurement techniques
  • 3D LDV
  • hot-wire anemometry
  • PIV
  • Unsteady aerodynamic investigation
  • Time averaged and ensemble averaged flow field
  • Reynolds stress distributions
  • unsteady phenomena detection
  • data sets for time-dependent N.S. and RANS code assessment

UNIGE-DIMSET: Experimental activities

ICLEAC

UNIGE-DIMSET: Numerical activities

  • Unsteady CFD Solver NastComb:
  • in-house development & validation
  • advanced turbulence model
  • reactive prediction (detailed)
  • radiation modelling
  • Analysis mode (large scale premixer):
  • comparison of flow fields and unstable behaviour
  • critical modes detection
  • parametric optimisation
  • Design mode (Real LPP prototype):
  • preheated 2-phase behaviour
  • fully reactive conditions
  • Transient Performance Method (CFD based)

AVIO S.p.A

URANS Transient Performance Method (TPM) applied to gas turbine combustor development

  • LPP double swirler injector design
  • RANS code for design and analysis validation
exploitation and dissemination turbomeca snecma
Exploitation and DisseminationTurbomeca & SNECMA
  • Laboratory rig
  • non-premixed
  • turbulent burner
  • Measurements
  • PIV
  • OH chem.
  • Hot wire anemometry
  • Flame Characterisation
  • Transfer functions
  • velocity profiles
  • visualisation, ...

EM2C

LES modelling results

LES model development

ICLEAC

CERFACS

LES modelling applied to gas turbine combustor development

SNECMA

Turbomeca

exploitation and dissemination example les calculation of cnrs em2c 2d burner

Transverse cuts coloured

by the propane consumption rate

Propane iso-surface

(YC3H8=0.06 stoichiometric value)

coloured by the temperature

Velocity field

Exploitation and Dissemination ExampleLES calculation of CNRS/EM2C 2D burner
exploitation and dissemination example les calculation of cnrs em2c 2d burner1
Exploitation and Dissemination ExampleLES calculation of CNRS/EM2C 2D burner

Simulation time 21ms ( one flow-through time)

Movie of forced case

icleac organisation1
ICLEAC Organisation

WP2 : isothermal experiments on injection systems

WP3 : transfer functions on combustors - effect of damping technologies

WP4 : development of simulation methods

WP5 : detailed measurements on combustors

In each Work package we have two types of hardware that

are investigated :

  • generic / academic hardware
  • real scale / Low Emission Aero Engine hardware.
icleac experiments and measurements8
ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

Atmospheric

Combustion Rig

  • T3 650 K
  • Optical access
  • Acoustic excitation
  • Dynamic pressure, CH Chemiluminescence
  • FTF derivation
icleac experiments and measurements9
ICLEAC Experiments and Measurements

High Pressure

Combustion Rig

  • P3 15 bar
  • T3 800 K
  • Acoustic excitation
  • Dynamic pressure, CH Chemiluminescence
  • FTF derivation
icleac mission2
ICLEAC Mission
  • To understand fundamental mechanisms leading to Combustion Instabilities in Aero Engine Low Emission Combustors. This includes the elaboration of comprehensive databases on academic flames and real combustor flames used both for analysis and code validation
  • To develop and validate predictive tools on generic and real Low Emission combustors also used in other programmes. This includes RANS and LES methods as well as a low order model (TALON) that is delivered to the partners during the last year of the programme
  • To define and validate design rules for Low Emission Combustors for Aero Engines to avoid/reduce combustion instabilities. Includes correlations between combustor geometries, and oscillation frequencies / amplitudes.