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1000

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  1. 3000 Environmental lapse rate = 4°C/km 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  2. 3000 Environmental lapse rate = 4°C/km 2000 Height above the ground (m) Dry adiabatic lapse rate 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  3. 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  4. 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  5. 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  6. Moist adiabatic lapse rate 3000 Environmental lapse rate = 4°C/km 2000 Height above the ground (m) Dry adiabatic lapse rate 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  7. 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  8. 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  9. 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  10. Absolutely stable 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  11. Absolutely stable 3000 warming aloft 2000 Height above the ground (m) and/or cooling near-sfc. 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  12. Dry adiabatic lapse rate 3000 Moist adiabatic lapse rate Height above the ground (m) 2000 1000 Environmental lapse rate = 11°C/km -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (°C)

  13. 3000 Height above the ground (m) 2000 1000 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (°C)

  14. 3000 Height above the ground (m) 2000 1000 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (°C)

  15. 3000 Height above the ground (m) 2000 1000 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (°C)

  16. 3000 Height above the ground (m) 2000 1000 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (°C)

  17. 3000 Height above the ground (m) 2000 1000 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (°C)

  18. 3000 Height above the ground (m) 2000 1000 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (°C)

  19. Absolutely unstable Dry adiabatic lapse rate 3000 Moist adiabatic lapse rate Height above the ground (m) 2000 1000 Environmental lapse rate = 11°C/km -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (°C)

  20. Absolutely unstable 3000 cooling aloft 2000 Height above the ground (m) and/or 1000 warming near-sfc. 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  21. Environmental lapse rate = 8°C/km 3000 Moist adiabatic lapse rate 2000 Height above the ground (m) Dry adiabatic lapse rate 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  22. 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  23. Conditionally unstable Environmental lapse rate = 8°C/km 3000 Moist adiabatic lapse rate 2000 Height above the ground (m) Dry adiabatic lapse rate 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  24. Conditionally unstable Dew point 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  25. Conditionally unstable Dew point 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) lifting condensation level 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  26. Conditionally unstable Dew point 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) lifting condensation level 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  27. Conditionally unstable 3000 level of free convection 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  28. Conditionally unstable 3000 2000 Height above the ground (m) 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature (°C)

  29. Fig. 5-8a, p.118

  30. Fig. 5-8b, p.118

  31. Fig. 5-12, p.120

  32. Fig. 5-13, p.120

  33. Fig. 5-8c, p.118

  34. Fig. 5-8d, p.118

  35. Fig. 5-8, p.118

  36. Fig. 5-15, p.121

  37. Fig. 5-16, p.122

  38. Fig. 5-17, p.123

  39. Fig. 5-18, p.123

  40. Fig. 5-19, p.124

  41. Fig. 4-5, p.81

  42. Fig. 2-2, p.28

  43. 620 cal/g 80 cal/g 540 cal/g 80 cal/g 540 cal/g 620 cal/g Fig. 2-2, p.28

  44. Fig. 5-20, p.125

  45. Fig. 5-21, p.125