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LIMITS TO SIZE. Volume. Volume determines the amount metabolism in the cytoplasm Metabolism will require import of precursors Metabolism will result in the export of secretions And the export of excretory products. © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS. Surface area.

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Presentation Transcript
volume
Volume
  • Volume determines the amount metabolism in the cytoplasm
  • Metabolism will require import of precursors
  • Metabolism will result in the export of secretions
  • And the export of excretory products

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

surface area
Surface area
  • Surface area will determine the exchange of materials between the cell and its environment
  • Bigger cells will metabolise more
  • But they will need more surface to support that metabolism
  • And the sites of metabolism in bigger cells will be further from the surface of the cell

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

growing cells

1µm

2µm

3µm

4µm

5µm

6µm

Growing cells

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

how are surface area and volume affected by growth

Size

/ µm

Surface area

/ µm2

Volume

/ µm3

SA/V

How are surface area and volume affected by growth?

1

2

3

4

5

6

6

24

54

96

150

216

1

8

27

64

125

216

6

3

2

1.5

1.2

1

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

surface area volume ratio
Surface Area:Volume Ratio

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

solving the problem
Solving the problem
  • Bigger cells have a greater metabolism than smaller cells
  • BUT bigger cells have a proportionallyless surface for exchange
  • How to increase surface area with increasing size?

© 2010 Paul Billiet ODWS

throw out extensions
Throw out extensions

Microvilli of small intestine epithelium

Image Credit www.cytochemistry.net/

flatten into a thin film
Flatten into a thin film

Image Credits http://anatomia.uw.hu/

Chick blastodisc

divide the cytoplasm into smaller volumes
Divide the cytoplasm into smaller volumes

8-cell Embryo

Early human embryos

Zygote

Image Credit http://www.rmfcfertility.com/

Image Credit http://www.advancedfertility.com/

multicellular organisms show the same adaptations

Image Credit http://ecomerge.blogspot.com

Multicellular organisms show the same adaptations
  • Flowering plants have an extensive, branched rooting system to absorb water and minerals
multicellular organisms show the same adaptations13

Image Credit C. Candalh, INSERM

Multicellular organisms show the same adaptations
  • Mammals have a long small intestine with internal folding to absorb digested food