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Chapter 3: Ethical Treatment of Research Participants

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  1. Chapter 3: Ethical Treatmentof Research Participants • Responsibility for ethical research • Researcher, IRB • Ethical considerations in planning research • Risks, voluntary participation, informed consent, deception • Ethical considerations in data collection • Avoid harm, withdrawal of consent • Ethical considerations following data collection • Alleviating adverse effects, debriefing, compensation of control groups, confidentiality of data • Summary

  2. Chap 3: EthicsResponsibility for Ethical Research • Primary issues • Both researcher and those supervised • Harm cf to benefits • IRB (Institutional Review Board) • How many, who is represented? Who, how many? • Scientist • Non-scientist • Non-affiliated with institutions • Criteria and Review Procedures • How many criteria? Box 3-1 • Elements of a research protocol (6) (Review procedures)

  3. 4 Ethical Considerations: Planning • Risk of harm or deprivation • Voluntary participation • Informed consent • Deception

  4. #1Risk of harm • Categories of risk • Physical, • psychological stress • inconvenience, boredom? • Economic? • What are some potential risks in your study? • Evaluating risks • Likelihood (Jacob et al., ’91; Zimbardo, ’73) • severity • duration • reversibility (Milgram, ’74) • early detection (Viox?)

  5. Risks of Harm con’t • Deprivation • Framingham study…asprin, • with-holding drugs from college students? • Withdrawing treatment (single subject: e.g. Anorexia) • Benefits of research • Psychological: (Milgram, ’74; Zimbardo, ’73) • Risk-Benefit analysis • Subjective judgment

  6. #2 Voluntary Participation • Covert v. Subtle Coercion…. • What’s the difference? • Have you experienced it? • Excessive inducements • What it take ($$$) for you to donate a kidney?

  7. #3 Informed Consent • Elements • Behavioral consent (Sieber, ’92) • Is this sufficient? • Have you given, rejected an offer? • Public behavior • Have you been observed? (Middlemist et al., ’76) • Would you have known? • Would you have cared? • Competence to consent • When would it not be necessary? • Readability of consent form

  8. #4 Deception • Active v. passive – does it matter? • Why is it necessary? • Internal validity: reactivity, control demand characteristics • Overcome reluctance to give information (e.g. bogus pipeline) • Allow for manipulation of IV (e.g. confederate agrees) • To study rare events (e.g. emergencies) • Minimize risks (e.g. Milgram, Buss) • Ethical objections • It’s lying and can have adverse effects • Are you suspicious? Are non-psych students suspicious?

  9. Deception con’t • Alternatives • Natural settings (often lack control) • Simulation research (e.g. Deutsch & Krauss, ’60) • Passive role playing • Janis & Mann, smoking cessation; • To test response to mugging? • Consent to deception • Would you agree to it? • Minimizing harm • Use the checklist p 76 • How harmful is it…really? (Christensen, ’88)

  10. Ethical Considerations: data collection • Avoidance of harm • Screening for risk factors (how is your ticker?) • Unanticipated adverse effects (Milgram & Zimbardo’s work) • Discovering psychological problems • Depression studies; • I-O testing applicants’ personality & cognitive ability • Withdrawal of consent • Reluctance to withdraw • Would you have refused to shock Ss? (Milgram, ’72)) • Right to withdraw & internal validity • What to do with “perception of control” (Singer & Glass, ‘75)

  11. Ethical Considerations:After data collection • Alleviating adverse effects • Debriefing (post experimental interview) • Components • Education; disclose deception; asking for P’s insight • Effective debriefing • Can debriefing be harmful? • Compensation of control groups • Confidentiality of data • Protecting confidentiality (cf with anonymity) • Data confidentiality and the law (discoverable through subpoena • DHHS certificate & complete anonymity

  12. Ethical Treatment:Summary • Responsibility for ethical research • Researcher, IRB • Ethical considerations in planning research • Risks, voluntary participation, informed consent, deception • Ethical considerations in data collection • Avoid harm, withdrawal of consent • Ethical considerations following data collection • Alleviating adverse effects, debriefing, compensation of control groups, confidentiality of data