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Imposing Liberalism. A nalyse perspectives on the imposition of the principles of liberalism on people / groups in Canada and the world through liberal foreign policy. To what extend, and for whom, has the imposition of Liberalism been successful?.

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imposing liberalism

Imposing Liberalism

Analyse perspectives on the imposition of the principles of liberalism on people / groups in Canada and the world through liberal foreign policy.

To what extend, and for whom, has the imposition of Liberalism been successful?

to what extent has the imposition of liberalism affected aboriginal groups in canada
To what extent has the imposition of liberalism affected aboriginal groups in Canada?

Conflicting Ideologies

Conflicting Land-Holding Ideologies

  • Attempts at Assimilation
  • Enfranchisement
  • Indian Act
  • White Paper
  • Red Paper
  • Contemporary Solutions
  • Land claims
  • Royal Commission
conflicting ideologies
Conflicting Ideologies

First Nations Perspective


Non-animate beings







Non-animate beings


Classical Liberalism Perspective

conflicting ideologies1
Conflicting Ideologies


  • Peoples place in the world – equal with other living things.

Colonial European Gov. (classical liberalism)

  • Peoples place in the world -dominant overall living.

Different philosophies (ideology) towards spiritual and societal beliefs created misunderstanding on issues of land ownership, progress, and change

conflicting ideologies2
Conflicting Ideologies

Classical Liberalism

  • Progress
    • dominate force of thinking
  • Associated with modernism (one direction- forward towards improvement modernism)


  • Believed there were laws of relationship (pg.306)
    • Laws of sacred life
    • Laws of nature
    • Laws of mutual support
conflicting land holding ideologies read page 307 308 to assimilation
Conflicting Land-Holding IdeologiesRead page 307 – 308 to assimilation

Aboriginal communities did not believe that they “owned the land” more spiritual and holistic interpretation of living on the land

Europeans would have wanted to buy, own and divide up the land

Foreign concept for aboriginal people’s, private property, more communal of resources, stewardship of the land

root causes of the attitude that the europeans brought to treaty negotiations
Root causes of the attitude that the Europeans brought to treaty negotiations?

Eurocentrism - perceived cultural superiority

Reliance on the value of written rules for government, citizens rights and trade

Cultural beliefs that differed from aboriginals.

Classical liberalist view - believed in private property defended by John Locke.


Causes of a large number of land claims Differences in understandings of historical agreements between first Nations and the Canadian government

Misunderstanding of terms of the treaties lead to a need for legal proceedings to interpret them.

Beliefs about the sovereignty of First Nations are not a question today – protection in the Charter of Rights.

Ethical consideration of fairness and equality are valued by Canadians.

First Nations are looked at differently today than in 19th century – entitled to same rights, responsibilities, freedoms, and private property as others.

Modern perspective on negotiations between First Nations and Canadian government are distinct from previous views.

attempts at assimilation
Attempts at Assimilation

Residential Schools

Enfranchisement & Gradual Civilization Act 1857

Denounce their Indian status – gain enfranchisement & 50 acres on reserve – land handed down.

Resistance by the Aboriginals.

To costly for what was gained

Was something granted instead of something belonging to all member of society

Land grant would have little meaning.

Rationale by the Gov.

Liberalist view (ultimate goal of citizenship)

Rights, freedoms, and material possessions ClassicalLiberalism

attempts at assimilation continued
Attempts at Assimilation continued

Indian Act (government legislation 1876)

Defined First Nations people (segregation)

Step back from 1763 Royal Proclamation (distinct peoples & nations with the right to negotiate as a sovereign nation) intended to end abuse.

Encourage abandonment of Indian status

Wards of the state

indian act
Indian Act

Compulsory enfranchisement

University degree



Religious minister

Women married a non-Aboriginal man

Vote in federal election

Join the Armed Forces

Voluntary Enfranchisement

  • Give up official Indian status
attempts at assimilation continued1
Attempts at Assimilation continued

White Paper

Trudeau – federalist

Pluralist society

Read pages 310-312 complete handout.

The White Paper 1968 vs. The Red PaperRead pages 310 -312 and additional reading note reasoning behind each policy and each sides views

Red Paper National Indian Brotherhood

White Paper Trudeau

contemporary solutions
Contemporary Solutions:

Major concerns by first nations

Land claims

Fulfillment of treaty rights

Acting on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal peoples

Read pages 312-314 and complete the handout “Contemporary solutions”

bringing liberalism to the world
Bringing Liberalism to the World

Read authors point of view top of page 318

What support and drawbacks to liberalism does Parekh state?

Under what conditions is a country justifying the imposing of its political ideology on another country?

rationale for imposing liberalism either by request or force
Rationale for imposing liberalism either by request or force
  • Self-interest:
    • reduce terrorist threats
    • Economic self-interest
  • Humanitarianism:
    • Moral / ethical reasons
    • Improve living conditions
    • Halt human rights violations
examples i mposing liberalism self interest
ExamplesImposing Liberalismself-interest

Imperialism– economic / eurocentrism

WWI Treaty of Versailles – democracy / self-determination / security

WWII Marshall Plan economic / security

Kuwait 1991 Gulf war / economic / violation of Kuwaiti territorial integrity

1998 Iraq Liberation Act "to establish a program to support a transition to democracy in Iraq." in response to the non-compliance to inspection nuclear weapons

2001 Oct. 7th Afghanistan Invasion “Operation Enduring Freedom “War on Terrorism”

2003 Iraq “Operation Iraqi Freedom” Invasion weapons of mass destruction / security

read pages 319 322 examples rationales of imposing liberalism
Read pages 319- 322 Examples & Rationales of Imposing Liberalism



3 Examples

Self- Interest

  • 5 Examples
imposing liberalism handout
Imposing Liberalism handout

Do you agree or disagree with the justification for foreign intervention expressed in the quote by Lynn Jones ?pg 319/20

How important do you think the “bonds of common humanity” are in forming the foreign policies of countries such as the United States and Great Britain?

Political cartoon fig. 9-11 who and what policy does the shark symbolize?

Is restricting economic activity a legitimate means of encouraging modern liberal principles in foreign countries?

How can this cartoon be used as an example of illegitimate and legitimate support of encouraging modern liberal principles in a foreign county?

canada s involvement in afghanistan
Canada’s Involvement in Afghanistan


Read pg. 323 & 324 Voices and supplied reading

Which of the quotes in “Voices” do you believe is the most realistic assessment of the situation in Afghanistan?

What reasons do you have for your choice?

How do you think most Afghan citizens view the presence of foreign troops in their country?

Do you think Canada has a responsibility to protect the new democratic system in Afghanistan? If so, What limits, if any, should be placed on that responsibility?

reactions to foreign liberalism
Reactions to Foreign Liberalism
  • Are there circumstances in which a country's stability and public security are more important than its citizen’s right to democratic self-determination?
    • Economic turmoil
    • natural disasters
    • threats from other countries
    • periods of violence
    • food and security are more important than a ballot
reactions to foreign liberalism1
Reactions to Foreign Liberalism

Robert Mugabe

1987 - Present

Juvenal Habyarimana

1973 -1994

YoweriMuseveni 1986 – Present



Reactions by Liberalism

Economic mismanagement, corruption, and brutal repression, illegal elections

In reaction to human rights violations the Bush administration legislated the Zimbabwe Democracy Act

" the situation in Zimbabwe endangers the southern African region and threatens to undermine efforts to foster good governance and respect for the rule of law throughout the continent."

USA presidential spokesman


Reactions by Liberalism

  • Ran the country primarily as dictator for 20 years
  • Under pressure from the United Nations and Western Countries to establish a collation Gov. 1992
  • Killed in a plane crash 1994

Reactions by Liberalism

  • Supported by the west for overthrowing Idi Amin 1979 (liberalist values)
  • Brought relative stability and economic growth to a country that has endured decades of government mismanagement, rebel activity and civil war.
  • His tenure has also witnessed one of the most effective national responses to HIV/AIDS in Africa.
  • Invaded the Congo (5 mil. Deaths), abolished presidential term
  • 1/3 live in poverty
democratic power grows from within a country not by imposition something to think about
Democratic power grows from within a country not by imposition.Something to think about?

Rapid ideological shifts within a country require major social change and commitment – move towards democratic liberalism would require the individuals to embrace free and fair elections.

Elections can only be free, fair and represent the will of the people if the people are informed, open to dialogue, and receptive and tolerant of diverse views and perspectives.


In order to implement Ideological change

  • Elections, need to be effective, should not be a front for authoritarian practices, but be one aspect of democratic practice.
  • Respect for the will of the people
  • Responsibility of the government to rule of law
  • Protections for individuals rights and freedoms
  • Multi-party elections
  • Non-violet actions by the government, and non-government organizations
  • Foreign government reforms may exacerbate the existing friction and conflict.
  • Ignores domestic state of affairs
concept review for chapter 9
Concept Review for chapter 9

Using the chart and Chapter 9 as your source, complete each of the empty boxes