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Imposing personalities. Lecture contents. Subjective Expected Utility Goal theory Self-discrepancy theory The origin and development of goals Personal strivings. Subjective Expected Utility (SEU). Edward Tolman Impressed with “persistence until” nature of action.

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lecture contents
Lecture contents
  • Subjective Expected Utility
  • Goal theory
  • Self-discrepancy theory
  • The origin and development of goals
  • Personal strivings
subjective expected utility seu
Subjective Expected Utility (SEU)
  • Edward Tolman
    • Impressed with “persistence until” nature of action.
    • Suggestive of expectancies that persistence will lead to valuedoutcomes.
  • Julian Rotter
    • Behaviour potential (likelihood of performance) is a function of (subjective) expectancy (expected consequences) and (subjective) reinforcement value (of those consequences).
    • Consequence probability and value to be calculated for each possible behaviour.
    • Most research looks at choice among a limited number of action options.
goal theory
Goal theory
  • 1. Goals and plans
    • Goals: persistent, valued, possible, necessary
    • Plans: instrumental, contingent
  • 2. The A(?)BC of goal-motivated behaviour
    • Cognitive representation of plans and goals, plus
    • Expectation that goal attainment will be valuable
      • Expectation is a cognition.
        • (Rewarding/valuable) Goal necessarily affective?
        • Affect necessary as a cause of ertia?
    • Behaviour potential.
  • 3. Goals occur in systems
means and ends
Means and Ends
  • Pham & Taylor (1999)
    • Mental simulation of ‘good process,’ ‘good outcome,’ both, or neither.
    • Including ‘process’ improved hours studying and studying intention-behaviour deficit.
    • Sole outcome focus worsened exam score.
  • Important jargon
    • Multidetermination
      • Goals interact to produce single outcomes.
    • Equipotentiality
      • The same goal may be satisfied in various ways.
    • Equifinality
      • Different goals can be satisfied by the same outcome.
where do goals come from
Where do goals come from?
  • Hedonism
  • Classical and operant conditioning
  • Functional autonomy
  • Choice
emmon s personal strivings
Emmon’s personal strivings
  • Form coherent patterns of goals.
  • Goals may be domain-specific, e.g., pleasant in social interactions.
  • Striving (clusters) and their expression is idiographic.
  • Some striving content is nomothetic.
    • E.g., Achievement, autonomy, affiliation.
assessment of personal strivings
Assessment of personal strivings
  • Open-ended self-report of goals and execution attempts.
  • Rate top 15 strivings on various dimensions, e.g., valence.
  • Factor analysis of dimension scores:
    • Degree of striving (e.g., value, importance, commitment)
    • Ease (e.g., opportunity, difficulty)
    • Success (e.g., past attainment, probability of success)
  • Pairwise comparison ofstrivings’ compatibility.
personal striving and swb emmons 1986
Personal striving and SWB (Emmons, 1986)
  • Positive affect from…
    • Actual achievement of valued goals.
    • Continued progress towards valued goals.
  • Negative affect from…
    • Conflict (co-present but oppositely valenced goals).
    • Ambivalence (success is a mixed belssing).
    • Anticipated failure.
  • Life satisfaction from…
    • Anticipated success.
    • Having important goals.
    • Having goals that facilitate affiliation.
what will satisfy you mcgregor little 1998
What will satisfy you?McGregor & Little (1998)
  • Happiness (affect) - From efficacy
      • ‘usually exuberant and enthusiastic’
      • ‘life to me seems always exciting’
      • ‘every day is constantly new and different’
      • ‘life is full of exciting good things’
      • ‘am achieving life goals’
  • Meaning (Life satisfaction) - From integrity
      • ‘have very clear goals and aims in life’
      • ‘clear goals and a satisfying life purpose’
      • ‘find meaning, purpose, and mission in life’