Micro life - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Micro life

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  1. Micro life Understanding how the cell works

  2. Advantages in Cell Structure • Small size allows for EASY ACCESS for Nutrients and waste removal (Osmosis and Diffusion) • Cells can become specialized to perform certain tasks • Multicellular animals have better survival chance; (If you are single celled organism with cell flaw or cell damaged you die: Prokaryote/bacteria) • In multicellular organisms cells can replaced when damaged: However, the more complex the organism the less “regeneration” • Specialized Cells create more complex organisms and organs with better abilities: however, harder to repair when damaged and some can be not be repaired: Nerve, Brain cells in humans

  3. 2 Factors which limit cell’s size • 1. Cell Volume- the space that the cells physically fills • 2. Surface Area- area of the cell’s surface which interacts with the environment around the cell • The ratio of cell’s S.A. to its volume is what limits the cell size • The reason is that diffusion or osmosis will not work well when volume of cell out grows it’s S.A.

  4. Cell Life Stages

  5. Steps of Mitosis • Interphase- nucleus disappears and chromosomes appear • Prophase- Chromosomes move to center of cell; Centrioles move to opposite ends • Metaphase- Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes in middle of cell • Anaphase- Chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends of cell (centrioles) • Telophase- Chromosomes, centrioles, and spindle fibers disappear; nucleus reforms and cell splits its cytoplasm to make 2 new “daughter” cells (cytokinesis)

  6. Cellular Respiration • Use of Nutrients in a cell to provide energy for the cell to function

  7. What is Diffusion • Diffusion is how cell’s breathe • Works through Cell Membrane- “Gatekeeper of the cell” • Oxygen gas naturally want to go inside cell because cell contains a lower amount of oxygen inside: • Carbon Dioxide naturally want to leave cell because of high levels of Carbon Dioxide inside cell and low amount outside

  8. What is Osmosis? • Natural flow of water across and through the cell membrane • Allows for nutrients to enter and leave cell without using energy • Energy then can be reserved for specialized functions/abilities

  9. Passive Transport • Requires no energy to move material throughout the cell • Diffusion and Osmosis are forms of Passive Transport

  10. Active Transport • Energy is required to allow material enter the cell membrane . Nutrients that are not water dissolved in water must be brought in this way into the cell: • Example would be an Amoeba engulfing its food (single celled organism) or the use of cilia to cause food to enter cell membrane for digestion in the vacuoles