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Generators, Motors and How We Get Electricity. Topics . What is electricity? Energy Conversion The Faraday Effect Motor vs. Generator AC/DC Energy Trends - the case for Green. What is Electricity?. Electricity is energy transported by the motion of electrons.

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Presentation Transcript
topics
Topics
  • What is electricity?
  • Energy Conversion
  • The Faraday Effect
  • Motor vs. Generator
  • AC/DC
  • Energy Trends - the case for Green
what is electricity
What is Electricity?

Electricity is energy transported by

the motion of electrons

**We do not make electricity, we CONVERT other energy sources into electrical energy**

Conversion is the name of the game

energy conversion options for electricity non thermal paths
Energy Conversion Options for ElectricityNon-Thermal Paths
  •  Source to Electrical
  • SourceConverter
  • Sun Photovoltaic (photon to electron)
  • Chemical Fuel Cell
  • Source to Potential/Kinetic to Mechanical to Electrical
  • SourceConverterKinetic to MechanicalMech to Electrical
  • Dam Penstocks Turbine (water) Generator
  • Tides Machine Turbine (air or water) Generator
  • Wind N/A Turbine (air) Generator
energy conversion options for electricity thermal paths
Energy Conversion Options for ElectricityThermal Paths
  •  Heat to Mechanical to Electrical
  • SourceHeat to MechanicalMech to Electrical
  • Geothermal Turbine (vapor) Generator
  • OTEC Turbine (vapor) Generator
  • Stored Energy to Heat to Mechanical to Electrical
  • SourceReactorHeat to MechanicalMech to Electrical
  • Fuel Combustor Turbine (gas or vapor) Generator
  • U, Pu Reactor Turbine (gas or vapor) Generator
  • Sun Collector* Turbine (gas or vapor) Generator
  • H, H2, H3Reactor Turbine (gas or vapor) Generator
  • * More a modifier or concentrator than a reactor
faraday effect

 Faraday Effect

  •  Basic Concepts
    • Voltage – V – Potential to Move Charge (volts)
    • Current – I – Charge Movement (amperes or amps)
    • Resistance – R – V = IxR (R in =ohms)
    • Power – P = IxV = I2xR (watts)
Faraday Effect
electric motor
Electric Motor

M

Electrical

Energy

Mechanical

Energy

DC Motor

model electric motor
Model Electric Motor

Beakman Motor

Electric Energy

Coil

Magnetic Field

What do you need?

electric generator
Electric Generator

G

Mechanical

Energy

Electrical

Energy

Stationary magnets - rotating magnets - electromagnets

ac dc not the band
Alternating Current

Large-scale generators produce AC

Follows sine wave with n cycles per second

1, 2, 3-phase?

US:120 V,60 Hz

Europe: 240 V,50Hz

Transforming ability

Direct Current

Batteries, Photovoltaics, fuel cells, small DC generators

Charge in ONE direction

Negative, Positive terminals

Easy conversion AC to DC, not DC to AC

AC/DC (not the band)
slide11

Generator Phases 1 Phase – 2 Phase – 3 Phase…Smooth Power

Force Driving Motor (Red)

Single Phase Two Phase Three Phase

Polyphase Systems  3 phases for smoother torque delivery

where do we get our electricity
Where do we get our Electricity?
  • Fossil – Coal, Natural Gas, Oil – 550 Gigawatts (GW)
  • Nuclear – 200 GW
  • Hydro – 75 GW
  • Geothermal – 2.3 GW
  • Other Renewable – Wind, Solar, OTEC – 13.6 GW
slide13

Energy Usage Per Capita (1999)

TOE/person-year

*TOE - Tons of Oil Equivalent (~40 Million Btus)

oil resources
Oil Resources

Have Oil…

Use Oil…

Saudi Arabia 26%

Iraq 11%

Kuwait 10%

Iran 9%

UAE 8%

Venezuela 6%

Russia 5%

Libya 3%

Mexico 3%

China 3%

Nigeria 2%

U.S. 2%

U.S. 26%

Japan 7%

China 6%

Germany 4%

Canada 4%

Russia 3%

Brazil 3%

S. Korea 3%

France 3%

India 3%

Mexico 3%

Italy 2%

The U.S. uses more than the next 5 highest

consuming nations combined.

slide15

Solar

Wind

10

12

14

14

16

16

12

10

12

10

14

16

18

2

Megajoules/m

10

<10

12

10-12

12-14

14-16

16-18

20

18-20

22

24

14

26

20-22

6.0-6.5 m/s

13.4-14.6 mph

26

22-24

24

6.5-70 m/s

14

24-26

20

22

18

14.6-15.7 mph

16

26-28

>7.0 m/s

>28

15.7+ mph

Biomass

Geothermal

Agricultural resources & residues Wood resources & residues Agricultural & wood residues Low inventory

o

Temperature <90C

o

Temperature >90C

Geopressured resources

U.S. Renewable Energy Resource Assessment

slide16

Barriers to Change

  • US energy infrastructure is large and deeply entrenched
    • 400,000+ miles of gas and oil pipelines
    • 160,000+ of high voltage transmission lines
    • 176,000 gasoline stations
    • 1000’s of oil and gas wells drilled annually in the US and Canada
slide17

Barriers to Change

  • oil and gas are readily available as a world commodity at low cost -- equivalent to $ 4 to 5 / million Btu
  • US coal is even more abundant and cheaper – approximately $1/million Btu
  • US electricity prices remain low relative to other commodities

The average American family spends only 3 to 4% of their income on energy!!