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Conditions for the development and experiences in the implementation of entrepreneurship support instruments in rural areas in Poland Dr Iwona Nurzyńska Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development Polish Academy of Sciences ( IRWiR PAN). Structure of the presentation :
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Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development
Polish Academy of Sciences (IRWiR PAN)
Why do we need non-farm jobs in Poland?
Source: RDR 2012, FDPA, Nurzynska & Wilkin (editors)
Source: National agricultural census. 2010, GUS, Warszawa 2011
1. Low level of development of the local market: insufficient local demand resulting from lower rural households’ income (income disparity = ~40% );
2. Difficult access to the final customer and users of services and products – lower population density; peripheral location
3. Lower qualifications and education level of rural people which limits the access to the qualified specialists (lower willingness to commute to rural areas for jobs);
4. Underdeveloped technical infrastructure compared to urban areas (roads, water supply and sewage system, energy and telecommunication networks - Internet), which implies higher costs for potential investors;
5. Hindered access to financial infrastructure in rural areas – difficulties to acquire capital for start ups
6. Hindered access to training and advise for rural entrepreneurship development (often inadequacy of entrepreneurship support)
7. Underdeveloped entrepreneurship culture (attitudes, perception, roles);
8. Low level of social capital (trust, cooperation).
9. Lack of more targeted policies differentiated between potential entrepreneurs and existing enterprises.
Source: Institutional barriers for rural entrepreneurship development (2011), Nurzynska and others, EFRWP
Objective – improvement of quality of life and job creation in rural areas via:
Objective: off-farm jobs (start-ups, micro-firms creation and development, LEADER)
Target groups: farmers and farmer family members, SMEs,
Share in RDP budget: 7,9%
Objective:off-farm jobs (start-ups, existing SMEs support under LEADER)
Target groups: farmers and farmer family members, existing SMEs (2 years), LAGs
Share in RDP budget: 8,06%