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Ch. 1, Sec. 2 (Prehistory-1500). Roots of the American People: Cultures of north America. Lesson Objectives. 1. Students will learn about the earliest people of North America. 2. Students will discover what different groups of Native Americans had in common.

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lesson objectives
Lesson Objectives
  • 1. Students will learn about the earliest people of North America.
  • 2. Students will discover what different groups of Native Americans had in common.
  • 3. Students will explore the impact of geography on Native American cultures.
outline
Outline
  • First Cultures of North America
  • Ways of Life
    • Meeting Basic Needs
    • Shared Beliefs
  • Native Americans of North America
    • Far North
    • Northwest
    • Far West
    • Southwest
    • Great Plains
    • Eastern Woodlands
    • Southeast
key terms
Key Terms
  • culture – ways of life
  • Culture area – regions in which groups of people have a similar way of life
  • kayaks – small boats made from skins
  • potlatch – a ceremony at which the hosts showered their guests with gifts
  • adobe – sun-dried brick
  • clans – groups of families that were related to one another
  • Sachem – tribal chief
first cultures of north america
First Cultures of North America
  • In North America groups developed very distinct cultures
  • Around 3,000 years ago, various groups began to emerge in the area stretching from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi Valley.
  • These people are referred to as mound builders, constructing large piles of earth
  • While many of these mounds were burial places, some served as the foundations for public buildings.
mound builders
Mound Builders
  • One group, the Mississippians, were responsible for building the first citiesin North America
  • In present day Illinois, as many as 40,000 people lived in one city
first cultures of north america1
First Cultures of North America
  • A far different culture, which we call the Anasazi, emerged in southern Utah, Colorado, northern Arizona, and New Mexico.
  • They built large cliff-dwellings
    • These helped defend against attacks from other tribes
  • Their largest community housed about 1,000 people
  • They were very skilled in making baskets, pottery, and jewelry
  • They also engaged in trade
  • By 1300, they had mysteriously abandoned their cliff dwellings.
first cultures of north america2
First Cultures of North America
  • From about 300 to 1450, highly skilled farmers called the Hohokam dug irrigation canals in the deserts of present-day Arizona.
  • Trade brought these people in contact with those who lived near the Gulf of California
  • They traded for seashells, which they used to make jewelry and religious objects.
checkpoint question
Checkpoint Question

For what purposes were mounds built?

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checkpoint question1
Checkpoint Question

For what purposes were mounds built?

For burial places and some were the foundations of government buildings.

ways of life
Ways of Life
  • Historians classify Native Americans into several culture areas
  • Though the cultural areas were very different from one another, many of them shared the same beliefsand basic traits.
meeting basic needs
Meeting Basic Needs
  • Native American tribes all adaptedto meet needs
  • Women collected roots, wild seeds, nuts, acorns, and berries
  • Men huntedfor game and fished.
  • Wild game was plentiful in regions like the Pacific Coast and the Eastern Woodlands
meeting basic needs1
Meeting Basic Needs
  • In many places, farming allowed people to grow and storefood
  • Each tribe learned how to grow crops that were adapted to their particular climate
  • They used sticks for digging; bones and seashells were used as hoes
  • Some even used fertilizer, in the form of dead fish
  • Native Americans who lived by farming were more populous than those who did not farm
meeting basic needs2
Meeting Basic Needs
  • Tradewas a common activity in all the Northern American cultures
  • In some areas, items such as seashells and beads were used as currency
  • Shells, flint for making fires, copper, and salt were all important trade items.
shared beliefs
Shared Beliefs
  • Many Native Americans felt a very close relationship to the naturalworld
  • They believed that spirits dwelled in nature and these spirits were part of their dailylives
  • They had many traditions that reflected these beliefs
shared beliefs1
Shared Beliefs
  • Native Americans also had a strong oraltradition
  • Storytellers memorized history and beliefs and then recitedthem
  • This is the way their tradition was passed on from generation to generation
checkpoint question2
Checkpoint Question

How did North Americans cultures meet their needs?

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checkpoint question3
Checkpoint Question

How did North Americans cultures meet their needs?

Hunting, gathering, farming, and trading with each other.

native americans of north america
Native Americans of North America
  • Well before 10,000 B.C. Native Americans had spread across the North American continent
  • They had adapted to the climates and living conditions of the places where they settled
  • By 1500, when the first Europeans arrived, this was a very diversegroup of people.
far north
Far North
  • Kutchin, Cree, Inuit, Ojibwa
  • The people of the arctic lived in a vast and harsh land, some covered with ice all year long
  • They hunted marine mammals such as whales, seals and walruses
  • They used kayaks
  • In the summer they fished in rivers for smaller fish
  • Most land was covered in forest; the people relied on plants and animals of the forests for food (moose, bear, other smaller animals)
northwest
Northwest
  • Tlingit, Bella, Coola, Coos
  • From Southern Alaska to Northern California deer and bears roamed the forests, rich with roots and berries
  • People here lived in large, permanentsettlements, even though they were not farmers.
  • High ranking people celebrated potlatches. Some gifts included woven cloth, baskets, canoes, and furs.
  • A families wealth was judged by what they could give away.
far west
Far West
  • Pomos, Shoshone, Nez Perces, Kwakuitl, Cheyenne
  • These tribes lived in very different geographic regions
  • Some parts had very cold winters; while others were desert-like
  • Some areas in California allowed for fishing, hunting of small game, and gathering berries
  • Housing differed greatly based on location; some lived in pit houses, dug into the ground, while others lived in cone-shaped houses covered with bark. In the farthest north areas, houses were even made from wooden planks.
southwest
Southwest
  • Navajo, Hohokam, Apache, Comanche, Hopi, Pueblo
  • These tribes experienced dry weather most of the year.
  • All groups did some farming, but some still primarily relied on hunting and gathering
  • Some tribes had to learn how to collect and store the rainfor hard times.
  • Some groups had stable towns that lasted for hundreds of years
  • They built large apartment houses made of adobe
great plains
Great Plains
  • Arapaho, Osage, Crow, Blackfeet, Mandan, Dakota
  • Covers a vast region from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains
  • Lived mainly by farming; women planted corn, beans and squash.
  • Most people lived in earth lodges; built with log frames and covered with soil.
  • Western areas were too dry to farm, so people here hunted
  • Their houses were teepees (large timbers covered with animal skin)
eastern woodlands
Eastern Woodlands
  • Miami, Leni-Lenape, Pequot, Iroquois, Huron, Algonquin, Montagnais
  • These people lived by hunting, fishing and foraging for nuts and berries
  • They did not take up farminguntil about 1,000A.D.
  • The Iroquois was the most advancedgroup, developing their own specific language
iroquois
Iroquois
  • Made up of 5 distinct nations
  • Each nation was made up of clans
  • Women had great influence in society; they passed membership in a specific clan to their children.
  • Women owned all the property that was owned by the clan and chose the Sachem
  • During the 1500’s they went through a period of warfare, finally making peace and forming the League of Iroquois.
    • It established a council to govern the 5, still giving them individual rights.
southeast
Southeast
  • Cherokee, Shawnee, Natchez
  • The climate in the Southeast was mild, but the summers were steamy and hot, perfect for farming
  • Houses were built on wood frames and covered with straw mats. They were “plastered” with mud clay to keep the interiors cool and dry
  • The Natchez people created a complex society; the ruler, at the top, was known as the “Great Sun”, with a noble class. The people at the bottom were commoners. The nobles has to marry a commoner, so the classes constantly changed.
review
Review
  • 1) What role did nature play in Native Americans’ religious beliefs?
  • 2) Identify two areas in which farming was the primary way of life
  • 3) What do you think farming did not develop extensively in the Arctic and subarctic regions?