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Initial EAP Supervisor Training: Alcohol and Drug Testing Program. Presented by the MCPS Employee Assistance Program 240-314-1040. November 2010. Please turn off your cell phones. If you need to take a call, please do it outside of this room. Thanks!. Outcomes.

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initial eap supervisor training alcohol and drug testing program

Initial EAP Supervisor Training: Alcohol and Drug Testing Program

Presented by the

MCPS Employee Assistance Program


November 2010

Please turn off your cell phones. If you need to take a call, please do it outside of this room. Thanks!
  • Increase familiarity with alcohol and drug testing regulations
  • Become knowledgeable about the affects of alcohol and drugs
  • Know what steps to take when suspicious that an employee might be under the influence
employee assistance program
Employee Assistance Program
  • Assessment, short-term counseling

and referral

  • Problem types
  • Cost
  • Eligibility
  • Referrals
  • Confidentiality
  • Other services: crisis response,

workshops, access point to mediation

scope of the problem
Scope of the Problem
  • There are more deaths and disabilities each year in the U.S. from substance abuse than from any other cause.
  • About 18 million Americans have alcohol problems; about 5 to 6 million Americans have drug problems.
  • More than half of all adults have a family history of alcoholism or problem drinking.

(National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence)

  • 1/4 of all emergency room admissions, 1/3 of all suicides, and more than 1/2 of all homicides and incidents of domestic violence are alcohol-related.
  • Heavy drinking contributes to illness in each of the top three causes of death; heart disease, cancer, and stroke.
  • Almost 1/2 of all traffic fatalities are alcohol related.

(National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence)

the cost
The Cost
  • Alcohol and drug abuse costs the American economy an estimated $276 billion per year in lost productivity, health care expenditures, crime, motor vehicle crashes, and other conditions.
  • Untreated addiction is more expensive than heart disease, diabetes, and cancer combined.
  • Every American adult pays nearly $1,000 per year for the damages of addiction.

(National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence)

substance abusing employees
Substance Abusing Employees
  • 3x more likely to be fired
  • 2x as likely to resign
  • 3.5x more accidents
  • 3x more often absent
  • 5x more likely to file workers compensation claims

(Department of Labor, 1999)

performance of safety sensitive functions is prohibited
Within four hours after using alcohol

While having a breath alcohol concentration of .02 or greater

If in possession of alcohol

If using alcohol

If a driver has used or tested positive

for drugs

Performance of Safety Sensitive Functions is Prohibited:
post accident testing
Post Accident Testing
  • Personal injury requiring immediate medical attention away from the scene to any occupants of the vehicle, another vehicle or pedestrian
  • Disabling damage to the commercial vehicle or another vehicle (requiring the vehicle to be towed)
approximate bac in grams
Approximate BAC (in grams)

Body Weight

Number of drinks

120 180 220







.09 .06 .05

.16 .11 .09

.31 .21 .17

.40+ .29 .24

BAC and Impairment

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

factors influencing rate at which bac rises
Factors influencing rate at which BAC rises
  • Weight
  • Gender
  • Food
  • Mixer
  • Strength of drink
  • Temperature of drink
sobering up
Sobering Up
  • Coffee
  • Cold shower
  • Drinking water
  • Time
  • Reduced rapid eye movement
  • Longer to adjust to bright/dim
  • Blurred/double vision
  • Vision impaired = distorted perception
  • Poor peripheral vision
  • Speedometer
  • Gauges
  • Lights and warning signals
  • Road conditions
  • Traffic
  • Signals and signs
  • People and animals
  • Stare instead of scan
  • No headlights
  • Overshoot stop sign

Vision Awareness


risk taking
Risk Taking

Inhibitions = Showoff / Aggressive

reaction time slower
Reaction Time Slower
  • Braking time
  • Thinking/reflexes
  • Steering
  • Accelerator to brake

(BAC .10 = 11% slower)

  • Brake, signal, shift gears, steer

(BAC .05 = 41% slower)

drug presentations
Drug Presentations
  • Prepare a presentation for the class describing the drug assigned to your group. You can:
    • Make a poster
    • Do a skit
    • Write and present rap/poem/song
    • Perform a puppet show
    • Feel free to be creative
  • Immediate Effects: Reddened eyes; increased heart rate; dry mouth and throat; increased appetite
  • Chronic and Long Term Effects:Impaired short-term memory; altered sense of time; slow reaction time; reduced ability to concentrate; impaired motor skills
  • Effects on Driving:Impaired reaction time; impaired short-term memory; reduced concentration; distorted time and distance sense; lengthened glare recovery and depth perception
  • Immediate Effects:Euphoria,dilated pupils; increase in blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate and body temperature
  • Chronic and Long Term Effects:Irritability, anxiety and depression; seizure and heart attack; loss of appetite and sleeplessness; hallucinations of touch, sight, taste and/or smell
  • Effects on Driving:Lapses in attention and concentration; aggressive behavior; impaired motor coordination; false sense of alertness and security
  • Immediate Effects: Increased heart rate, blood pressure and respiration; dilated pupils; dry mouth
  • Chronic and Long Term Effects:Sweating, headache, blurred vision and dizziness; decreased appetite; sleeplessness and anxiety; depression; psychosis (hallucinations, delusions, or paranoia)
  • Effects on Driving:Overestimation of performance abilities; more accident prone; anxiety; irritability and overreaction; auditory and visual hallucinations
  • Immediate Effects: Increased energy; talkativeness; alertness/paranoia; euphoria; physical rushes; loss of appetite; jitteriness
  • Chronic and Long Term Effects: Depression; sleep problems; severe anxiety; long term paranoia; psychosis; muscle tension; chills and nausea; blurred vision; brain damage
  • Effects on Driving: Severely effects accuracy, judgement, perception and the ability to concentrate; increases confidence and risk taking; produced unofficially, so impact of adulterants is unpredictable
  • Immediate Effects: Relaxation and sleepiness; reduction of pain; pinpoint pupils; cold, moist and bluish skin
  • Chronic and Long Term Effects:Restlessness, nausea and vomiting; user may go “on the nod”, going back and forth from feeling alert to drowsy; addiction even with occasional use; infections from unsterile solutions; illness such as hepatitis, AIDS and tetanus from using needles
  • Effects on Driving:Euphoric high followed by stuperous inactivity; difficulty focusing; visual distortion; loss of consciousness.
  • Immediate Effects: Effects are erratic and unpredictable; increased heart rate and BP; flushing, sweating, dizziness and numbness; violent or bizarre behavior
  • Chronic and Long Term Effects: Stimulation of body functions - can also act as a depressant, pain killer, anesthetic or hallucinogen; change in user’s perception of own body and other forms; changes in speech, muscle coordination and vision; “spacing out’ of time
  • Effects on Driving:A sense of invulnerability and power; aggressive behavior; visual distortion; impaired coordination and dulled senses
positive tests 1 10 10 11 3 10
Positive Tests (1/10/10 – 11/3/10)
  • Pre-employment 1 (cocaine)
  • Reasonable Suspicion 0

(2 conducted)

  • Random 4

(3 THC, 1 refusal)

  • Post accident 0

(34 conducted)

  • Return to Work 0

(3 conducted)

role of the supervisor
Role of the Supervisor
  • Ensure the safety of the driver, the students, and the public
  • Use best skills and judgment
  • Determine if there is reasonable suspicion to test
  • Subpart P - Confidentiality
  • § 40.321   What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test information?
  • .…, you are prohibited from releasing individual test results to third parties without the employee's specific written consent
  • (a) A “third party” is any person to whom other parts of this regulation do not authorize or require the transmission of information in the course of the drug or alcohol testing process.
recent cases
Recent Cases

September 2009:

  • Illinois school bus driver arrested for Driving Under the Influence of Drugs after endangering a bus full of seventh graders by driving recklessly. Also charged with 41 counts of child endangerment.

October 2009:

  • California school bus driver arrested for Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and child endangerment. Bus hit by a pick up truck after bus driver made a U-turn with 31 children on bus.
reasonable suspicion guidelines
Reasonable Suspicion Guidelines
  • Ongoing observation/supervision of your drivers
  • Compare observations with handbook (p.7)
  • Get second supervisor to confirm
  • Meet in private
  • Arrange to send for testing
  • Document your observations - use correct forms
  • Questions? Call Miles Alban (HR) or EAP
frequently asked questions
Frequently Asked Questions
  • Do you test a driver when a child is injured on the bus and the injury is not the result of an accident?
  • How do we select drivers for random testing?
  • Why do we test some people for alcohol only and others for drugs and alcohol?
  • Who is responsible for taking the employee for reasonable suspicion testing?
frequently asked questions1
Frequently Asked Questions
  • Why don’t we test bus attendants?
  • If I have a concern about a driver’s potential drug or alcohol use, can I add him/her to my random testing list?
  • What happens if an employee can’t supply any or a sufficient amount of urine?
Thanks for coming!For more information about the EAP, contact us at 240-314-1040or visit our website