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3.1 The Cellular Level of Organization

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3.1 The Cellular Level of Organization. The cell is the structural and functional unit of an organism, the smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life. 3.1 The Cellular Level of Organization. Prokaryotic cells lack membrane enclosed structures.

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3 1 the cellular level of organization
3.1 The Cellular Level of Organization
  • The cell is the structural and functional unit of an organism, the smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life.
3 1 the cellular level of organization1
3.1 The Cellular Level of Organization
  • Prokaryotic cells lack membrane enclosed structures.
  • Eukaryotic cells possess membrane enclosed structures.
the cell theory
The Cell Theory
  • All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
  • Cells are the basic living unit of structure and function in organisms.
  • All cells come only from other cells.
surface area volume ratio
Surface Area / Volume Ratio
  • The amount of surface area affects the ability to get materials in and out of a cell.
  • A cells increase in volume, the proportionate amount of surface area decreases.
plasma membrane and cytoplasm
Plasma Membrane and Cytoplasm
  • All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane.
  • The material inside of a cell is the cytoplasm.
  • The plasma membrane regulates what enters and exits a cell.
3 2 prokaryotic cells1
3.2 Prokaryotic Cells
  • Cell Wall
  • Capsule
  • Flagellum
  • Nucleoid
  • Ribosomes
prokaryotes are
Prokaryotes are:
  • Structurally simple
  • Metabolically diverse
  • Adapted to most types of environments
3 3 eukaryotic cells
3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
  • Eukaryotic cells:
    • Are structurally complex
    • Have a nucleus
    • Possess membrane-bound organelles
    • May have a cell wall
the nucleus
The Nucleus
  • Stores DNA
the nucleus1
The Nucleus
  • Stores DNA
  • Nucleolus - rRNA
  • Nuclear Envelope
    • Nuclear pores
ribosomes
Ribosomes
  • Site of protein synthesis
  • Two subunits (large and small)
    • Subunits consist of rRNA and protein molecules
  • Polyribosomes
    • Several ribosomes with a single mRNA molecule
endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Consists of membranous channels and saccules
endoplasmic reticulum1
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Rough ER
    • Processing and modification of proteins
  • Smooth ER
    • Synthesizes phospholipids
    • Various other functions
golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
  • The Golgi apparatus collects, sorts, packages, and distributes materials such as proteins and lipids.
lysosomes
Lysosomes
  • Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that break down unwanted, foreign substances or worn- out parts of cells
vacuoles
Vacuoles
  • Vacuoles are membranous sacs that store substances.
    • For example:

Water

Pigments

Toxins

peroxisomes
Peroxisomes
  • Membrane bound vesicles containing enzymes.
    • The enzymes break down molecules and as a result produce hydrogen peroxide.
energy related organelles
Energy-Related Organelles
  • Chloroplasts
  • Mitochondria
energy related organelles1
Energy-Related Organelles

Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration

chloroplasts
Chloroplasts
  • Site of photosynthesis
  • Structure:
    • Double-membrane
    • Stroma
    • Grana
      • Thylakoids
  • Chloroplasts contain:
    • Their own DNA
    • Ribosomes
    • Enzymes
mitochondria
Mitochondria
  • Found in all eukaryotic cells
  • Site or cellular respiration
  • Structure:
    • Double-membrane
    • Matrix
    • Crista
the cytoskeleton
The Cytoskeleton
  • Maintains cell shape
  • Assists in movement of cell and organelles
  • Assemble and disassemble as needed
  • Three types of macromolecular fibers
    • Actin Filaments
    • Intermediate Filaments
    • Microtubules
actin filaments
Actin Filaments
  • Anchored to the plasma membrane
  • Allows intestinal microvilli to expand and contract
  • Found in pseudopods allowing amoeboid movement
  • Play a role in animal cell division
actin filaments1
Actin Filaments
  • Actin interacts with motor molecules such as myosin.
  • In the presence of ATP, myosin pulls actin along
  • Example: muscle cells
intermediate filaments
Intermediate Filaments
  • Intermediate in size between actin filaments and microtubules
  • Functions:
    • Support nuclear envelope
    • Cell-cell junctions, such as those holding skin cells tightly together
microtubules
Microtubules
  • Hollow cylinders made of two globular proteins
  • Assembly:
    • Under control of Microtubule Organizing Center (MTOC)
    • Most important MTOC is centrosome
  • Interacts with specific proteins to cause movement of organelles
centrioles
Centrioles
  • Short cylinders with a 9 + 0 pattern of microtubule triplets
centrioles1
Centrioles
  • Help organize microtubules during animal cell division
  • May be involved with microtubule formation and in the organization of cilia and flagella
cilia and flagella
Cilia and Flagella
  • Hairlike projections that aid in cell movement
  • In eukaryotic cells, cilia are much shorter than flagella
  • They are membrane-bound cylinders enclosing a matrix area
    • The matrix consists of microtubules in a 9 + 2 pattern