HIST Model Community Transformation. Intro to Community Development. GROUP ACTIVITY: Take 5 minutes to create a one or two sentence definition of Community Development. Community Assessment. GROUP ASSIGNMENT:
Take 5 minutes to create a one or two sentence definition of Community Development.
Using your definition of Community Development, assess one of the following communities.
Choose one community:
Describe what you see.
What are the issues?
What will you do?
#3 Myanmar / Burma
A comprehensive, integrated approach that enables community-wide transformation by improving the baseline capacities of a community so that it is able to sustain itself and provide dignity and justice for its members.
We all can count the seeds in a mango, but who can count the mangos in a seed?
A seed is full of potential.
As we look at communities, how do we assess them?
Do we see their problems, or do we help create an environment which maximizes the potential in the “seed” of that community?
What issues affect Community Transformation?
Worldview – Our Belief Systems are our worldview, which is that solid rock into which we anchor the blocks that form the foundation of our lives.
Foundations – These are the building blocks we lay in our lives built upon the worldview rock. We integrate important stones into our foundations, which determine whether the “buildings” we build in our lives will be sturdy and long lasting. This forms our actions and our life style and also defines our response to the challenges of our community’s transformation.
Methodology – These are the visible outward expressions or methods of presenting our worldviews and our foundations, but they are the external issues and are not as important as the invisible things upon which we base our Belief Systems.
Each of us has a set of lenses through which we interpret the world around us.
Based upon what we see through these lenses, we create a “belief system” for our lives, which becomes our worldview. We evaluate our life and culture, making choices accordingly.
Fruit = Results
Branches = Behaviors
Trunk = Values
Roots = Belief Systems
1Darrow Miller, “Power of Story,” Disciple Nations Alliance, 16 Oct 2007
Knowledge & Wisdom
What kind of foundations will we lay for Community Transformation?
What may be the visible end result?
We must correctly address the single, most negative influence that inhibits the efforts of those that work to achieve healthy Community Development…
What is real Wealth?
Where does real Wealth fit on this continuum?
Where do the poor fit on this continuum?
Pauper – Extremely poor person with no support from family or neighbors; totally dependent upon external support.
The Poor person can move toward Wealth...
…Or toward Pauperism.
We want to enable them move toward Self-Sustainability.
Responses to Poverty
2 Oxford Dictionaries, “animism,” 25 June 2010 <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/view/entry/m_en_us1221920#m_en_us1221920>
3 Wikipedia, “Materialism,” 25 June 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materialism>
4Merriam-Webster, “humanism,” 25 June 2010 <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/humanism>
5 Oxford Dictionaries, “dichotomy,” 25 June 2010 <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/view/entry/m_en_us1240174#>m_en_us1240174>
Materialism: considers all things impersonal; hunger and poverty are a result of the lack of shared resources. Mankind must struggle for control of these resources
Builds upon a foundation that centers on man as the focus of all things
Emphasizes the outward things of life, it seeks to evolve mankind to a higher level by conquering poverty and other social ills
Lack of assets
Lack of reserves
Lack of choices
Easy to coerce
Too many dependents
Lack of strength
Lack of education
Excluded from system
Lack of influence
Lack of social power
Exploited by powers
6 Robert Chambers, Rural Development — Putting The Last First (New York: Longmans Scientific and Technical Publishers, 1983) 110
“Absolute faith in our ability to control our own destiny…”7
An approach which attempts to change how societies function and redirect the lives of others
Attempt to redistribute society’s wealth
7 David W. Ehrenfeld, The Arrogance of Humanism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) 9-10
Examples of development efforts that have not moved people from dependence to dignity, in spite of massive resource investment:
Aid Programs Impoverished Nations
Centralized Control Communist Nations
Human Development Western Nations
Aid as a percentage of GDP
Example: Soviet Union
General Trends Only)
USA - an example of a nation, which transitioned from its original societal model to a humanistic approach to poverty:
Early USA had virtually no poor
Poor cared for by families, neighbors and churches
Believed: if given the option, people opt to not work
Therefore, endorsed a work ethic, with motivations:
“Work, Be Independent”
“Don’t work, Go Hungry”9
Poor Houses were established requiring:
An “Oath of Poverty”
No “Outdoor Relief” allowed = donations given without accountability lead to pauperism
The focus of Aid was to help to find work10
9 Marvin Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1992) 10
10 Olasky, 13
Until the late 1870’s, “there was no national welfare system and very little…state…”11 assistance
Society’s goal in early years
Personal examination of need12
Giving was based on personal involvement not material aid13
Promote good role models – people who had lived wisely
However, a transition took place
Change of belief that man is naturally good and productive
Dichotomy introduced – spiritual uncoupled from physical
No further requirement to work for self-sustenance
Pay others to care for poor - do what we do not want to do
11 Olasky, 71
12 Olasky, 19
13 Olasky, 14
By the early 1900’s, a new belief system evolved, which proposed that:
“people are naturally good and that every person has a right to…temporal prosperity.”14
“…everyone had a right to sustenance, and that forced redistribution of wealth through a collective agency might well be the moral way to fight poverty.”15
“…social distinctions…were the cause of evil. The way to end evil was to redistribute wealth…to tax the better off and distribute…to those less well off.”16
14 Olasky, 50
15 Olasky, 51
16 Olasky, 55
Proponents created social associations, which depersonalized how issues of poverty were handled
Associations set the example by readily giving financial assistance without verifying people’s need or willingness to work
Eventually, the US government adopted this approach and set up welfare departments, which began to give out cash, rather than material aid
Most governments and agencies have implemented policies, which resulted in dependency, creating welfare states
Mass media has an insatiable appetite for the extreme and problematic story
Communities have little incentive to become producers;rather, they become “consumers of services”, creating a “client community” mindset
Funding is based on problem-oriented data collected from “needs surveys”
Most institutions and organizations are funded based on their numbers of “poor” clients
Society's most influential institutions have a vested interest in maintaining policies and programs that are deficiency-oriented
As a result, institutions and organizations have little motivation to help lift people out of poverty or other societal ills
Re-Align Behavior to build Positive Relationships
Change of Belief System Paradigm to a Holistic Worldview
Diminished value of the Creator
Social System: political, economic, religious, local / global
Individual to Themselves
Marred identity, poverty of being, diminished vocation
Oppression Access denied Moral povertyWeb of lies
Violence Racism Domination
= broken orunjust relationships
Overused land Poor land No land
17 Adapted from: Bryant L. Myers, Walking with the Poor (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 2000) 87
They can help a community, if they will:
Accept the people of the community
Engage community - build relationships
Serve as a catalyst within the community
Strategically nurture communities to health
Create change by influencing all sectors of
Transformed Communities result in
Incorporating the whole person (all aspects)
Incorporating all sectors of societies
Accepted into the community
A part of that community
Complete, all-encompassing change of the
Change paradigm and thinking of communities
Look within community for answers
Holistic approach to development
Each person has value with
Each community has sectors with
various and multi-faceted assets/needs
Development of policies and activities are based upon the capacities, skills and assets of the local community
Significant community transformation takes place only when local people are:
Committed to investing:
View video of the Trash Recycling Plant
“Trickle-Down” Micro-Finance Model of Community Transformation
1. Grant money or a loan jump-starts a project. A “treasurer” is appointed to keep a ledger. The money is loaned to Group #1, which then makes three loan re-payments, each 1/3 of the loan.
2. The treasurer “re-loans” that first Quarterly Repayment to start the second group. The money continues to “trickle down” as this carries on.
3. As the final loan re-payment has been made by Group #1, via the treasurer to Group #2, Group #3 receives its first loan and the “trickle down” continues.
4. Once each group begins to receive profits from their project, they begin to pay a portion of profitinto a Savings Co-Op to be used for Community Transformation and/or Infrastructure projects.
New Projects orSavings Co-Ops
5. Similarly, once the final loan repayment is made to the treasurerfrom the last group, the loan money is used for another project or put into the Savings Co-Op.
Family Development / Support
Security, Justice, Rule of Law
Information / Communication
Health / Hygiene
Arts and Entertainment
Ag and Animal Husbandry
Re-Align Behavior to build Positive Relationships
Change of Belief System Paradigm to a Holistic Worldview
As an Agent of Change in your community, which of the 12 Primary Service Areas would you choose to engage in order to bring transformation?
Describe how you would bring sustainable change in those areas.
Community Transformation Projects
Bakery Project – Indonesia
Coffee Trader – Yemen
Restaurant and Training Classes – Morocco
Poultry Project – Papua, Indonesia
Vocational Training – Philippines
Sewer and Road Construction – Cambodia
Literacy Classes and Businesses – Mauritania
Chambers, R. (1983). Rural Development: Putting the Last First. London: Longman
Cope, L.L. (2006). The Old Testament Template. Burtigny, Switzerland: The Template Institute Press
Easterly, W. (2006). The White Man's Burden. New York, NY: The Penguin Press
Ehrenfeld, David W., (1981). The Arrogance of Humanism. Oxford University Press
Kretzman, J.P., & McKnight, J.L. (1993). Building Communities from the Inside Out. Evanston, IL: Institute for Policy Research
Miller, D. (2007). “Power of Story,” Disciple Nations Alliance
Myers, B.L. (1999). Walking with the Poor. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books
Olasky, M.N. (1992). The Tragedy of American Compassion. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing