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HIST Model Community Transformation. Intro to Community Development. GROUP ACTIVITY: Take 5 minutes to create a one or two sentence definition of Community Development. Community Assessment. GROUP ASSIGNMENT:

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group activity take 5 minutes to create a one or two sentence definition of community development

Intro to Community Development

GROUP ACTIVITY:

Take 5 minutes to create a one or two sentence definition of Community Development.

slide3

Community Assessment

GROUP ASSIGNMENT:

Using your definition of Community Development, assess one of the following communities.

slide7

Community Assessment

Choose one community:

Describe what you see.

What are the issues?

What will you do?

#1 Indonesia

#3 Myanmar / Burma

#2 Somaliland

slide8

DEFINITION

Community Transformation:

A comprehensive, integrated approach that enables community-wide transformation by improving the baseline capacities of a community so that it is able to sustain itself and provide dignity and justice for its members.

how many mangos are in a seed
How many Mangos are in a Seed?

We all can count the seeds in a mango, but who can count the mangos in a seed?

A seed is full of potential.

As we look at communities, how do we assess them?

Do we see their problems, or do we help create an environment which maximizes the potential in the “seed” of that community?

community transformation
Community Transformation

What issues affect Community Transformation?

Worldview

Foundations

Methodology

aspects that impact development

Worldview – Our Belief Systems are our worldview, which is that solid rock into which we anchor the blocks that form the foundation of our lives.

Foundations – These are the building blocks we lay in our lives built upon the worldview rock. We integrate important stones into our foundations, which determine whether the “buildings” we build in our lives will be sturdy and long lasting. This forms our actions and our life style and also defines our response to the challenges of our community’s transformation.

Aspects that Impact Development

Methodology – These are the visible outward expressions or methods of presenting our worldviews and our foundations, but they are the external issues and are not as important as the invisible things upon which we base our Belief Systems.

slide12

Belief System

Each of us has a set of lenses through which we interpret the world around us.

Based upon what we see through these lenses, we create a “belief system” for our lives, which becomes our worldview. We evaluate our life and culture, making choices accordingly.

Worldview

slide13

Belief System Formation

  • In each of our lives, there have been key people or other sources that have influenced us. Name some of the “influencers” that helped you build and form your worldview.
  • These could include influencers, such as:
    • Parents Siblings Friends
    • Teachers Vocation Religion
    • Culture Media Others…?
                  • Worldviews of individuals collectively form the worldviews and cultures of communities.

Worldview

slide14

Worldviews and their Foundations

  • Each worldview has, as its roots, a specific belief system, out of which values are derived, leading to corresponding behaviors, which produce varied results.
  • In other words ideas, and the values we place on them, produce behaviors and lifestyles that impact people, changing cultures, nations and history.

Worldview

slide15

Worldview: It Develops like a Tree

Fruit = Results

Branches = Behaviors

Trunk = Values

Roots = Belief Systems

Worldview

1Darrow Miller, “Power of Story,” Disciple Nations Alliance, 16 Oct 2007

slide16

Worldview Influences Foundations

Discord

Dishonesty

Oppression

Freedom

Honesty

Healthy Relationships

False Perceptions

Ignorance

Manipulation

Truth

Truth

Knowledge & Wisdom

What kind of foundations will we lay for Community Transformation?

What may be the visible end result?

slide19

Primary Challenge to Development

We must correctly address the single, most negative influence that inhibits the efforts of those that work to achieve healthy Community Development…

…POVERTY

Methodology

slide20

Dependence to Dignity Continuum

What is real Wealth?

Where does real Wealth fit on this continuum?

Where do the poor fit on this continuum?

Self-

sustainability

Pauperism

Poverty

Wealth

Pauper – Extremely poor person with no support from family or neighbors; totally dependent upon external support.

The Poor person can move toward Wealth...

…Or toward Pauperism.

We want to enable them move toward Self-Sustainability.

Methodology

slide21

Worldviews and their

Responses to Poverty

  • Of all the worldviews, there are three worldviews which incorporate ideas from many of the major belief systems and offer distinctive approaches to poverty:
        • Animistic
        • Humanistic/Materialistic
        • Holistic

Methodology

slide22

Definitions

  • Animism – “the belief in a supernatural power that organizes and animates the material universe,”2 or an organizing force in the universe as a separate spirit.
  • Materialism – the theory that “the only thing that exists is matter; that all things are composed of material and all phenomena (including consciousness) are the result of material interactions,”3 or what can be perceived by the five senses in the material world.

2 Oxford Dictionaries, “animism,” 25 June 2010 <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/view/entry/m_en_us1221920#m_en_us1221920>

3 Wikipedia, “Materialism,” 25 June 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materialism>

slide23

Definitions

  • Humanism – “A doctrine, attitude, or way of life centered on human interests or values; especially: a philosophy that usually rejects supernaturalism and stresses an individual's dignity and worth and capacity for self-realization through reason”4
  • Holistic approach – An integrated approach that focuses on complete or whole systems, the temporal and the eternal, valuing body, soul, mind and spirit.

4Merriam-Webster, “humanism,” 25 June 2010 <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/humanism>

slide24

Definitions

  • Dichotomy – A division or contrast between two things that are, or are represented as, being opposed or entirely different5, and can also be understood as a split in thinking.

5 Oxford Dictionaries, “dichotomy,” 25 June 2010 <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/view/entry/m_en_us1240174#>m_en_us1240174>

slide25

Animism: Belief System and Values

  • The causes of hunger and poverty lie outside the physical world
  • Floods, earthquakes, droughts and diseases are physical manifestations of irrational forces
  • There are millions of gods, who are unpredictable
  • Bad things happen when the gods are angry
  • Effort expended in helping the poor is done as a way to gain favor with the gods or move to a “higher state”

Methodology

slide26

Animism: Behavior and Results

  • Constantly appease the gods
  • Live in harmony
  • Because suffering is a virtue, just endure it
  • Survive the endless cycle of existence and escape the world
  • Believe there are no lasting solutions, so no point trying to help those in need

Methodology

slide27

Humanism, a form of Materialism

Materialism: considers all things impersonal; hunger and poverty are a result of the lack of shared resources. Mankind must struggle for control of these resources

Humanism:

Builds upon a foundation that centers on man as the focus of all things

Emphasizes the outward things of life, it seeks to evolve mankind to a higher level by conquering poverty and other social ills

Methodology

slide28

Humanism - Belief System

  • Humanism is currently the most commonly accepted approach to poverty alleviation:
  • Mankind is good, but the ‘System’ is bad
  • Dichotomized thinking, with over-emphasis of physical/material realm vs. non-physical
  • It concludes that mankind’s endeavors to bring change fail because of the belief that the world is a “closed” universe, consisting of:
        • Too many people
        • Too few natural resources
        • Oppression through complex, unjust social and economic structures

Methodology

slide29

Humanist View of Poverty

Lack of assets

Material

Poverty

Lack of reserves

Lack of choices

Easy to coerce

Too many dependents

Lack of strength

Vulnerability

Physical

Weakness

Powerlessness

Isolation

Lack of education

Excluded from system

Lack of influence

Lack of social power

Exploited by powers

6 Robert Chambers, Rural Development — Putting The Last First (New York: Longmans Scientific and Technical Publishers, 1983) 110

slide30

Humanism - Values

  • Over-emphasis on physical resources and the physical realm of nature
  • Try to overcome one’s selfish nature by ‘doing good’
  • Value charitable giving, in the hope that by transferring or redistributing wealth, people will move from poverty to prosperity

Methodology

slide31

Humanism – Behavior

“Absolute faith in our ability to control our own destiny…”7

An approach which attempts to change how societies function and redirect the lives of others

Attempt to redistribute society’s wealth

Methodology

7 David W. Ehrenfeld, The Arrogance of Humanism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) 9-10

slide32

Humanism - Approach

Examples of development efforts that have not moved people from dependence to dignity, in spite of massive resource investment:

Aid Programs Impoverished Nations

Centralized Control Communist Nations

Human Development Western Nations

Methodology

slide33

Aid and GDP Growth in Africa8

Aid as a percentage of GDP

Methodology

slide34

Centralized Control Systems*

Example: Soviet Union

*(Graph Indicates

General Trends Only)

Methodology

slide35

Humanism’s Response to Poverty

USA - an example of a nation, which transitioned from its original societal model to a humanistic approach to poverty:

Early USA had virtually no poor

Poor cared for by families, neighbors and churches

Believed: if given the option, people opt to not work

Therefore, endorsed a work ethic, with motivations:

“Work, Be Independent”

“Don’t work, Go Hungry”9

Poor Houses were established requiring:

An “Oath of Poverty”

No “Outdoor Relief” allowed = donations given without accountability lead to pauperism

The focus of Aid was to help to find work10

Methodology

9 Marvin Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1992) 10

10 Olasky, 13

slide36

Humanism’s Response to Poverty

Until the late 1870’s, “there was no national welfare system and very little…state…”11 assistance

Society’s goal in early years

Personal examination of need12

Giving was based on personal involvement not material aid13

Promote good role models – people who had lived wisely

However, a transition took place

Change of belief that man is naturally good and productive

Dichotomy introduced – spiritual uncoupled from physical

No further requirement to work for self-sustenance

Pay others to care for poor - do what we do not want to do

Methodology

11 Olasky, 71

12 Olasky, 19

13 Olasky, 14

slide37

Humanism’s Response to Poverty

By the early 1900’s, a new belief system evolved, which proposed that:

“people are naturally good and that every person has a right to…temporal prosperity.”14

“…everyone had a right to sustenance, and that forced redistribution of wealth through a collective agency might well be the moral way to fight poverty.”15

“…social distinctions…were the cause of evil. The way to end evil was to redistribute wealth…to tax the better off and distribute…to those less well off.”16

Methodology

14 Olasky, 50

15 Olasky, 51

16 Olasky, 55

slide38

Humanism’s Response to Poverty

Proponents created social associations, which depersonalized how issues of poverty were handled

Associations set the example by readily giving financial assistance without verifying people’s need or willingness to work

Eventually, the US government adopted this approach and set up welfare departments, which began to give out cash, rather than material aid

Methodology

slide39

Humanism - Results: Dependence

Most governments and agencies have implemented policies, which resulted in dependency, creating welfare states

Mass media has an insatiable appetite for the extreme and problematic story

Communities have little incentive to become producers;rather, they become “consumers of services”, creating a “client community” mindset

Methodology

slide40

Humanism - Results: Dependence

Funding is based on problem-oriented data collected from “needs surveys”

Most institutions and organizations are funded based on their numbers of “poor” clients

Society's most influential institutions have a vested interest in maintaining policies and programs that are deficiency-oriented

As a result, institutions and organizations have little motivation to help lift people out of poverty or other societal ills

Methodology

slide41

Summary of Results

  • Many communities and nations, which received funds from aid organizations and individuals are now worse off than before they received aid
  • The net-effect has been minimal or resulted in a negative change:
    • No long-term improvement in quality of life
    • Minimal poverty alleviation
laying new foundations
Laying New Foundations

Re-Align Behavior to build Positive Relationships

Reform Values

Change of Belief System Paradigm to a Holistic Worldview

Truth

slide43

Holistic: Belief System

  • Defines the world or the universe as an “open” system not a “closed” system
  • Hunger and poverty begin inside of human beings
  • Poverty is not a lack of resources, rather it is rooted in a “culture” of poverty - a set of ideas held corporately that produce certain behaviors which, in turn, yield poverty

Methodology

slide44

Holistic: Values

  • Resources must be handled responsibly
  • Not all resources are limited because many are renewable
  • We can use our creativity to take what is available and multiply it exponentially
  • Poverty is not the result of a lack of material goods or resources, but rather the result of broken relationships

Methodology

slide45

Poverty as…Broken Relationships

Diminished value of the Creator

Social System: political, economic, religious, local / global

Creator

Individual to Themselves

Marred identity, poverty of being, diminished vocation

Oppression Access denied Moral povertyWeb of lies

Violence Racism Domination

Self

Self

Others

Community

= broken orunjust relationships

Environment

Overused land Poor land No land

17 Adapted from: Bryant L. Myers, Walking with the Poor (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 2000) 87

slide46

Holistic: Behavior

  • Focus of community transformation is asset-based
  • Encourage people to prepare and build constructive societal models that restore dignity and value to individuals and communities
  • Train people to be Agents of Change – active, positive influencers in their society
  • Agents of Change work with entrepreneurs to lay solid foundations

Methodology

slide47

Agents of Change

They can help a community, if they will:

Accept the people of the community

Engage community - build relationships

Serve as a catalyst within the community

Strategically nurture communities to health

Create change by influencing all sectors of

society

Transformed Communities result in

Transformed Nations

slide48

Holistic: Results

  • Sustainable, healthy societies
    • Change is stimulated at all levels:
      • Personal
      • Societal
      • Broken relationships restored
      • Inner resources identified = assets
      • Developed capabilities (quality)
      • Built capacities (quantity)

Methodology

for community transformation

The HIST Model

for Community Transformation

H Holistic

Incorporating the whole person (all aspects)

Incorporating all sectors of societies

I Integrated

Accepted into the community

A part of that community

S Sustainable

Long-term, Lasting

Reproducible

T Transformation

Complete, all-encompassing change of the

community

Change paradigm and thinking of communities

slide50

Asset-Based Community Transformation (ABCT)

Characteristics:

Asset-based18 (Capacity-focused)

Look within community for answers

Relationship-driven

Holistic approach to development

Each person has value with

multi-dimensional assets/needs

Each community has sectors with

various and multi-faceted assets/needs

Methodology

  • Kretzmann, J.P., & McKnight, J.L., (1993). Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community's Assets ,Asset-Based Community Development Institute, , http://www.abcdinstitute.org/publications/basicmanual/
slide51

Capacity-Focused Transformation

Development of policies and activities are based upon the capacities, skills and assets of the local community

Significant community transformation takes place only when local people are:

Fully mobilized

Committed to investing:

themselves

their resources

View video of the Trash Recycling Plant

Methodology

slide52

“Trickle-Down” Micro-Finance Model of Community Transformation

1. Grant money or a loan jump-starts a project. A “treasurer” is appointed to keep a ledger. The money is loaned to Group #1, which then makes three loan re-payments, each 1/3 of the loan.

Group #1

2. The treasurer “re-loans” that first Quarterly Repayment to start the second group. The money continues to “trickle down” as this carries on.

Group #2

3. As the final loan re-payment has been made by Group #1, via the treasurer to Group #2, Group #3 receives its first loan and the “trickle down” continues.

Group #3

Group #4

4. Once each group begins to receive profits from their project, they begin to pay a portion of profitinto a Savings Co-Op to be used for Community Transformation and/or Infrastructure projects.

Group #5

New Projects orSavings Co-Ops

5. Similarly, once the final loan repayment is made to the treasurerfrom the last group, the loan money is used for another project or put into the Savings Co-Op.

slide53

12 Primary Development Service Areas

  • Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
    • Environmental Management
    • Crops / Irrigation ManagementAnimal Husbandry
  • Arts and Entertainment
    • The Arts
    • SportsRecreation and Amusement
  • Economic Development
  • Micro-Economic Development (MED)
  • Small to Medium Sized Enterprises
  • Ethical Trade and Labor Practices
  • Cooperatives / Associations
  • Financial Institutions
slide54

12 Primary Development Service Areas

  • Information / Communications / Technology
    • Personal Communications (Phone, Sat, HAM Radio)
    • Mass Communications (Press/TV/Radio)
    • Internet IT / Technology Consultation
  • Education
    • Instruction
    • Administration
    • Curriculum Development
  • Family Development / Support
  • Marriage Counseling
  • Parenting
  • Childhood Development
  • Widows
  • Orphans / Children at Risk
  • Elderly
slide55

12 Primary Development Service Areas

  • Government
    • Community / Tribal Leadership
    • City / Regional Leadership
    • National / International Leadership
  • Security, Justice, and the Rule of Law
  • Military
  • Courts and System of Justice
  • Law Enforcement /Security
  • Legal Services
  • Health / Hygiene
  • Water
  • Sanitation
  • Hygiene
  • Diet and Nutrition
slide56

12 Primary Development Service Areas

  • Medical
    • Medical Professionals / Teams
    • Medical Equipment and Supplies
    • Medicine
  • Clinics / Hospitals
  • Epidemic Diseases
  • Infrastructure
  • Warehousing / Supply Chain
  • Transportation / Distribution
  • Power / Utilities
  • Construction / Engineering
  • Roads
  • Ports / Airports
  • Non-Profit Organizations
  • Civic Groups/Clubs/Associations
  • Non-Governmental Organizations
  • Religious Organizations
holistic societal transformation
Holistic Societal Transformation

Societies

Healthy

Family Development / Support

Government

Security, Justice, Rule of Law

Education

Information / Communication

Health / Hygiene

Medical

Economic Development

Infrastructure

Arts and Entertainment

Ag and Animal Husbandry

Non-Profit Organizations

Re-Align Behavior to build Positive Relationships

Reform Values

Change of Belief System Paradigm to a Holistic Worldview

Truth

slide58

Group Activity

As an Agent of Change in your community, which of the 12 Primary Service Areas would you choose to engage in order to bring transformation?

Describe how you would bring sustainable change in those areas.

slide59

Examples of Successful

Community Transformation Projects

Bakery Project – Indonesia

Coffee Trader – Yemen

Restaurant and Training Classes – Morocco

Poultry Project – Papua, Indonesia

Vocational Training – Philippines

Sewer and Road Construction – Cambodia

Literacy Classes and Businesses – Mauritania

slide60

Recommended Reading

Chambers, R. (1983). Rural Development: Putting the Last First. London: Longman

Cope, L.L. (2006). The Old Testament Template. Burtigny, Switzerland: The Template Institute Press

Easterly, W. (2006). The White Man's Burden. New York, NY: The Penguin Press

Ehrenfeld, David W., (1981). The Arrogance of Humanism. Oxford University Press

Kretzman, J.P., & McKnight, J.L. (1993). Building Communities from the Inside Out. Evanston, IL: Institute for Policy Research

Miller, D. (2007). “Power of Story,” Disciple Nations Alliance

Myers, B.L. (1999). Walking with the Poor. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books

Olasky, M.N. (1992). The Tragedy of American Compassion. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing