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TECHNICAL TRAINING HANDBOOK (LEVEL I)

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  1. TECHNICAL TRAINING HANDBOOK (LEVEL I) FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  2. CONTENTS • Introduction • First part : basic principles • Magnetic fields Page 11 • Creation of one sinusoid Page 12 • Frequency formula Page 13 • Number of phases Page 14 to 15 • Three phases alternators Page 16 • Three phases sinusoides Page 17 • A few formula to remember Page 18 • Intensity Page 19 • Power factor cos  Page 20 • Active power / Apparent power Page 21 to 22 • Electric power / mechanic power Page 23 • Mechanic power Page 24 to 25 • Various types of power Page 26 FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  3. CONTENTS • Second part : the engine • Various types of engine Page 28 • Diesel engine Page 29 to 30 • Air circuit Page 31 • Cooling circuit Page 32 • Water cooling circuit Page 33 • Various water cooling systems Page 34 to 36 • Gasoil supply circuit Page 37 to 39 • Various types of intake Page 40 to 44 • Pre-heating Page 45 • Suspensions Page 46 • Speed regulation Page 47 to 48 • Electronic speed regulation Page 49 to 51 • Diesel engine lubrification Page 52 to 53 • Engine securities Page 54 • Engine output Page 55 FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  4. CONTENTS • 3rd Part : the alternator • Exploded view Page 57 • Voltage regulator Page 58 • 6 threads alternators coupling Page 59 • 12 threads alternators coupling Page 60 • Electrical connections Page 61 • Alternator protection Page 62 to 63 • 4th Part : control command • Introduction Page 65 • Various types of panels Page 66 • Manual panel Page 67 • Automatic panel Page 68 to 69 • ATS Page 70 FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  5. CONTENTS • 5th Part : Various notions • Installation Page 72 to 76 • Noise Page 77 to 78 • Questions FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  6. INTRODUCTION FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  7. WHAT IS A GENERATING SET ? + + CONTROL COMMAND ENGINE ALTERNATOR FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  8. PRESTATIONS DE SDMO INDUSTRIES FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  9. MAGNETIC FIELDS   The magnetic field created by the rotating magnet cuts the coils leading to induced current.   The flux direction changes (alternates) once per rotation thus creating ALTERNATIVE POWER. The number of times this is happening per second is called FREQUENCY. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  10. MAIN FUNCTIONS In case of mains failure The generating set is an element of assistance replacing the faulty mains and ensuring operating of vital functions of one company, one store or onehospital… When there is no network It is used as the unique energy production source on one construction site, within one works or in the desert… FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  11. 1. BASIC PRINCIPLES FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  12. CREATION OF ONE SINUSOIDE Rotor rotation degrees FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  13. FREQUENCY FORMULA Unlike the continuous current (supplied by a battery), the ALTERNATIVE current reverses its polarities + and – 50 times / second, thus obtaining a frequency of 50 Hz (or 60 times in 60 Hz). Formula to remember : Frequency (Hz) = Number of poles pairs (P) x rotation speed (rp/s.) n F P = If number of poles = 4 (2 pairs) Then : Engine speed = 1500 rp/mn If number of poles = 2 (1 pair) Then : Engine speed = 3000 rp/mn 2 x 1500 1 x 3000 F = = 50 Hz F = = 50 Hz 60 sec. 60 sec. The frequency is constant. The number of poles is constant. A genset must operate with a constant speed  Importance of the frequency stability. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  14. SHAPE OF ONE SINUSOÏDE Positive maximum voltage Negative maximum voltage 1 period 50 ou 60 per second 1 Hz = one period / second 50 Hz = 50 periods / second FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  15. NUMBER OF PHASES We can distinguish alternators according to the number of phases : SINGLE PHASE ALTERNATORS : Fitted with coils so that the output voltage is obtained in two terminal points. THREE PHASES ALTERNATORS : Fitted with 3 independent groups of coils un-phased by 120° between each others. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  16. THREE PHASES ALTERNATORS FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  17. THREE PHASES SINUSOIDES 1 period Dephased FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  18. A FEW FORMULAS TO REMEMBER VOLTAGE: Potential difference between two threads. It is measured with a voltmeter. INTENSITY : Current passing through one receiver within a given time period. It is measured with an anmeter in series. Schéma Chute d’eau FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  19. INTENSITY Contrary to the voltage that must remain stable, intensity varies depending on the requested load. Intensity, in the case of some electrical engines supply, may at the start-up of these engines, become during some milliseconds from 6 to 8 times superior to the nominal intensity. I (Amp.) I D I D = Release intensity I N = Nominal intensity I N t FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  20. POWER FACTOR  Cos  d = can reach 0,2 Cos  n = 0,8 up to 0,9 In some cases of utilization (supply of electric engines), the current is « late » compared to the voltage. This « delay » is called the power factor « cos ” and its value is very important for the gensets dimensions. The power factor cos  of one electric engine is very different between the starting phase and the nominal phase. U i FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  21. ACTIVE POWER / APPARENT POWER a) SINGLE PHASED Active power = Apparent power x Power factor Cos  kWe = kVA x cos  P(kW) = V x I x cos  S (kVA) = V x I b) THREE PHASED Active power = Apparent power x Power factor Cos x 3 P (kW) = U x I x cos  x 3 S (kVA) = U x I x 3 Electrical equipments supplied by the generating set (the « consumers ») do not give back the entire power supplied. One distinguishes then the active power from the apparent power. « V » = Voltage between phase and neutral. « U » = Voltage between phase FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  22. ACTIVE POWER / APPARENT POWER Active power = Apparent power x Power factor Cos  P = U x I x cos  kWe = kVA x cos  Active P. (kW) Apparent P. (kVA)  FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  23. ELECTRIC POWER / MECHANIC POWER Mechanic power = Electric power :  P engine = elec. P. :  (kW = kWe : ) Alternators do not transform the entire power supplied. Their performance () is around 0,9. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  24. MECHANIC POWER : UNITS • In CV (« horse power ») 1 CV = 0,736 kW • In « British horse power » 1 BHP = 0,746 kW The engines power rating is expressed with various units depending on the countries. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  25. MECHANICAL POWER RATING : CALCULATION OF DEMAND We can determine the requested power for the engine from the demand in electric power P eng. = U x I x cos  :  Theoretical example : one installation requesting - 500 amps - 380 volts - Power factor 0,8 - Performance 0,9 In Kilowatt : 168,9 kW In HP : 229,5 Cv In « British Horse Power » : 226,4 BHP FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  26. VARIOUS TYPES OF POWER RATINGS STANDARD Power ratings for the GENERATING SET application are defined in the ISO 8528 international standard. VARIOUS TYPES OF POWER RATINGS PRP (Prime Power) : formerly known as Continuous Power Available power (under variable load) 24H/24 with possibility of an overload of 10 % every 12 hours. ESP (Emergency Standby Power) : formerly known as Standby Power Power available (under variable load) limited to one 500 hours operating duty per year without possibility of overload of 10% every 12 hours. COP (Continuous Power) : power rating available (under constant load) 24H/24. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  27. 2. THE ENGINE FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  28. VARIOUS TYPES OF ENGINES • COMBUSTIBLE • - Petrol • Diesel • Gaz (GPL, natural gaz , biogaz) • Domestic Diesel oil • Bunker C fuel OPERATING CYCLES - 2 strokes (mix of petrol + oil) - 4 strokes (pure combustible) • SPEED • - Fast engines 3000 / 3600 rp/mn (50/60 Hz) – standby duty • semifast engines1500 / 1800 rp/mn – continuous duty • Slow engines 750 / 1000 / 1200 rp/mn – energy production / high power ratings FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  29. DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST OUTLET HOT WATER OUTLET TURBOCOMPRESSOR FAN AIR INLET CHARGING ALTERNATOR FUEL FILTER OIL FILTER ENGINE POWER OUTPUT WATER PUMP STARTER FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  30. DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST OUTLET TURBOCOMPRESSOR AIR INTAKE HOT WATER OUTLET FAN ENGINE POWER OUTPUT COLD WATER INLET FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  31. AIR SYSTEM EXHAUST OUTLET AIR INTAKE FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  32. COOLING SYSTEMS There are various types of cooling systems (see drawings on next pages) : • AIR COOLING TURBO NOT COOLED SIMPLE CIRCUIT TURBO COOLED • WATER COOLING TURBO COOLED DOUBLE CIRCUIT FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  33. WATER COOLING SYSTEM WATER TANK RADIATOR WATER PUMP FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  34. VARIOUS TYPES OF WATER COOLING SYSTEMS 1) A single water system Turbocompressor John Deere « T » Turbo with water cooled overfeeding air supply (see B) Volvo « TWD » FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  35. VARIOUS TYPES OF WATER COOLING SYSTEMS 2) Double circuit Turbo with water cooled overfeeding air supply (see B) NB : these engines are not advised for installations with separated air coolers John Deere « H » Volvo « TAD » and MTU – Series 2000 FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  36. VARIOUS TYPES OF WATER COOLING SYSTEMS 3 ) Water double circuit HT and BT MTU : 4000 Series FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  37. FUEL SUPPLY CIRCUIT Separated fuel tank Integrated fuel tank FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  38. FUEL SUPPLY CIRCUIT Ligne d’injection Valve de fermeture Pompe à injection Tuyauterie fuel retour Filtre fuel optionnel / séparateur d’eau Filtre fuel Orifice remplissage et bouchon Tuyauterie fuel aller Trou d’homme ¼ du volume du réservoir event 5% du volume du réservoir Cloisons de séparation Vanne de vidange FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  39. FUEL SUPPLY CIRCUIT Mechanic fuel pump (JOHN DEERE) Electric fuel pump (MITSUBISHI) Fuel filter FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  40. One engine creates a mix air / combustible in proportions enabling the complete combustible combustion. Ideal mixture : 1 volume of fuel (combustible) implies 35 volumes of air. To increase the engine maximal power, one needs to increase both fuel and air quantity. VARIOUS TYPES OF INTAKE FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  41. The maximum air volume that can be assimilated by an engine equals its cylinder capacity. For one given cylinder capacity, the admitted air intake quantity is : Proportional to its pressure Conversely proportional to its temperature To increase the power, one has to increase the air admitting pressure to lower its temperature VARIOUS TYPES OF INTAKE FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  42. VARIOUS TYPES OF INTAKE • In the basic engine, plungers, suck the air getting down in the cylinders : • ENGINE « NATURAL SUCTION » FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  43. VARIOUS TYPES OF INTAKE • To increase the intake air pressure one uses a turbocharger : exhaust gaz drive one turbine • « TURBO » ENGINE FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  44. VARIOUS TYPES OF INTAKE • To lower the air temperature, an intercooler (air or water) is mounted in the intake circuit. •  INTERCOOLER ENGINE  FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  45. PRE-HEATING Pre-heating of water cooled engines is ensured through a resistor mounted in the water system to maintain the water temperature to its nominal value (x°C). The resistor is supplied in single phase or three phases (depending on the type). Its power is of 0,3 up to 9 kW. The resistor is supplied by the mains. In order to preserve its longevity, the resistor is in some cases equipped with a thermoregulator. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  46. SUSPENSIONS Suspensions (rubber blocks) are intended to reduce vibrations between two parts. • Usually used between : • skeleton genset (engine + alternator) and the frame • Radiator and frame The measuring unit for suspensions is the shore. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  47. SPEED REGULATION As seen already , the engine speed must be constant. To achieve this it is necessary to adjust it. The regulation is a device which purpose is to maintain or vary an operating element on a machine : current, voltage, frequency, speed, pressure, power rating, output, etc… The speed control is the key to the thermal engine regulation. The speed regulation will act on the quantity of energy injected to the engine (fuel, gaz, petrol) to adapt it to the load in order to maintain the engine speed within pre-determined limits. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  48. SPEED REGULATION There are two types of speed regulations : • - Mechanical : the regulator is composed of flyweightsacting under the effect of the centrifugal force. •  Precision is of +- 3% • Electronics : see hereafter •  Precision is of +- 1% The mechanical regulation FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  49. THE ELECTRONIC SPEED REGULATION Speedcontrol unit Pick-up Electric actuator The pick-up sensor measures the engine speed and sends this information to the electronic regulation. The actuator is a mechanical system acting on the injection pump. The actuator control is managed with the electronic governor. FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)

  50. THE ELECTRONIC SPEED GOVERNOR Actuator Pick-up FORMATION TECHNICO-COMMERCIALE (NIVEAU I)