Indian and China Establish Empires Chapter 7
SSWH2 The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE. a. Describe the development of Indian civilization; include the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire, the “Golden Age” under Gupta, and the emperor Ashoka. b. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism on India and subsequent diffusion of Buddhism.
Main Ideas In India and China, military leaders seize power and used authority to strengthen government. From Aryan nomads, India is product of interacting cultures. In China, government pressure conquered people to adopt Chinese culture. Buddhism and Hinduism dominate India. Confucius and Buddhism take root in China.
Timeline 321 BC Chandragupta Maurya founds empire 202 BC Lui Bang establishes China’s Han Dynasty AD 65 Buddhism takes place in China AD 105 China invents paper AD 220 Han Dynasty falls AD 320 Gupta Empire forms in India and encourages renewal of Hindu faith
India’s First Empires Both Mauryas and Guptas establish empires but neither unified India permanently. The diversity of the people of India (beliefs, languages, culture) continues to pose problems to India today.
Mauryan Empire Established • Chandragupta Maurya • Conquered powerful Nanda King (Ganges) • Defeats Alexander’s Macedonian General • Unifies North India: • Initiated high taxes to pay for large army • Intrigue: spying and political assassinations • Divided empire into 4 provinces • Ruled by princes - district officials levy and collect taxes • Asoka (grandson of Chandragupta) brings glory to Mauryan Empire
Asoka • In beginning: • Waged war to expand empire • In end: • Adopted Buddhism throughout empire • Urged religious toleration and harmony • Non violence • After his death: • Regional kings vie for power: Andhara dynasty gains power Waves of Greeks, Persians and Asians flood region
Gupta Empire is Established • Chandra Gupta: • Hindu culture and art thrives • Northern India • Patriarchal society :eldest male rules • Southern region: • Tamils continue strife • Matriarchal: headed by the mother • 3 Gupta Empires: • Great achievements in art, religious thought and science.
Section 2: Trade spreads Indian Religion and Culture India’s religions, culture and science spread to other regions through trade. Influence of Indian culture seen throughout Asia.
Buddhism and Hinduism Change Buddhism: Teaches desire causes suffering and can overcome with Eightfold Path nirvana achieved through spiritual discipline
Hinduism: • Had become complex (Mauryan Empire) and only practiced by priests • Hindu changed to make the religion assessable to the people • Belief in divine force of the universe led to: • 3 important gods of Hinduism • Brahma: creator of the world • Vishnu: preserver of the world • Shiva: destroyer of the world
Achievement of Indian Culture • Arts: • Poetry/Literature • Drama – dance • Astronomy: • calendar based cycles of the sun • Seven day week/Hours in the day • Mathematics: • Modern numeral/zero/decimal system • The value of pi • Length of the lunar year • Medicine: • Injections – surgery • Herbal medicine and research diseases
Spread of Indian Trade • India: source of spices, gold, pearls • Silk Roads: vast network of caravan routes • Became ‘middle men’ in the overland trade between China and the West • Sea trade between India and Rome and Africa • Effects of trade: • Rise of banking – loans and interests rates • Thailand Cambodia and Indonesia adopt numerous Indian cultures • Hinduism spread to Nepal/Sri Lanka • Buddhism spreads to China
Section 3: Han Emperors in China Han dynasty expanded China’s borders and developed a system of government that lasted for centuries. A strong central government has remained a permanent part of Chinese life.
Han Restore Unity • Civil war as peasants revolt against taxes • Lui Bang emerges as leader • Founder of Han dynasty • Proclaims himself as emperor • Established ‘centralized government’ (a central authority controls running of the state) • Xiongnu(fierce nomads with Archery skills on horse back) roam the steppes • Han emporers try to ‘buy off’ the nomads
Highly Structured Society • Emperor: • Semi-divine – link between heaven and earth • (Mandate of Heaven) • Kings/governors: • Appointed by emperor • Governed with state officials, nobles, scholars • Peasant farmers: • Production of food – vital to empire • Artisan and merchants: • Soldiers: • Enslaved/conquered persons:
Economic Prosperity • Obligations of peasants: • Pay taxes • One months service to the emperor per year • Confucianism assists in centralization: • Bureaucracy: • civil servants needed to run government post • Civil Service Test: knowledge of Confucianism • Confucian scholars : court advisor to emperor • respect, generosity, industriousness: • qualities of civil servant worker
Han Achievements • Literature began with the invention of paper (on silk prior) • Helped spread education • And record keeping for civil servants • Collar harness/plow (two blades) • Revolutionized agriculture • Porcelan/loom • Recorded the solar system
Han Dynasty age of economic prosperity Growth of money econmy The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BCE remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE). To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BCE. These government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period, and the lost revenue was recouped through heavily taxing private entrepreneurs. The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 CE. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum.