The meaning of Language. Chapter 5 Semantics and Pragmatics Week10 Nov.19 th -23 rd. This is only a summary. Reviewing the Tree diagram ( Sentences: Hierarchical Organization ) 2. What do you know about meaning, when you know a language? 3. What is Semantics?
Semantics and Pragmatics
This is only a summary
Reviewing the Tree diagram (Sentences: Hierarchical Organization )
The boy raced the girl.
This TEMPLATE says that a determiner is followed by a noun, which is followed be a verb, etc
This TEMPLATE, however, suggests that words have no internal organization.
Thus, we can use a TREE DIAGRAM to make it easier to see the parts and subparts of a sentence.
As a result, the structure of the sentence can be recognized in the tree’s hierarchical organization.Template vs. Tree Diagram
The boy raced the girl.Phrase Structure Tree (PS Trees) or Constituent Structure Tree:
The meaning of language
What do you know about meaning, when you know a language ?
Meaningful and meaningless words and sentences.
When a word is ambiguous.
When 2 words have the same meaning or the opposite.
When sentences are true or false.
In this section we are going to answer the question, if the meaning of a word is not like a dictionary entry, then what is it?
a. Reference definition + example.
b. Sense definition + example.
“Characterizing the meaning of words in terms of their relationship” –Yule-
2. Antonyms (a. gradable b. relational opposites c. by adding prefixes)
3. Homonyms; same spelling ,homophones; same sound
Semantic features such as “human”, “female"," young”, “cause”, or “go” can be treated as the basic elements involved in differentiating the meaning of each word in a language from every other word.
We can characterize the feature that is crucially required in a noun in order for it to appear as the subject for a particular verb.
The____N +human_____ is reading the newspaper.
Part of the meaning of words may be described by the semantic features
Consider the following sentence:
The boy rolled a red ball.
The NP subject and the VP are semantically related in many ways, and the meaning depends on the meaning of the particular verb.