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DNA: Transcription & Translation. How do we go from DNA to PROTEIN?. WHAT DO WE NEED?. DNA RNA mRNA: messenger RNA rRNA: ribosomal RNA tRNA: transfer RNA Amino Acids  Proteins. DNA. The genetic code or “blue-print” of life Contains the bases A, T, C, and G to code for amino acids.

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DNA: Transcription & Translation

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dna transcription translation

DNA: Transcription & Translation

How do we go from


what do we need
  • DNA
  • RNA
    • mRNA: messenger RNA
    • rRNA: ribosomal RNA
    • tRNA: transfer RNA
      • Amino Acids Proteins
  • The genetic code or “blue-print” of life
  • Contains the bases A, T, C, and G to code for amino acids
dna genes codons
DNA/ Genes/ Codons
  • DNA is made of approximately 80,000 genes
  • Genes are sections of DNA

that code for a single protein

  • Codons are a set of 3 bases that code for an amino acid
  • Polymer of ribonucleotides
    • Sugar (ribose)
    • Phosphate group
    • Nitrogenous base (A, U, C, G)
  • Single-strand
  • Three types: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
roles of rna
  • mRNA: transports information from DNA from the nucleus to the cell’s cytoplasm
  • rRNA: (makes up ribosomes): clamps on to mRNA and reads its information to assemble amino acids in the correct order
  • tRNA: transports amino acids to the ribosomes to be assembled into proteins
  • Process in the cell’s nucleus where enzymes make an RNA copy (mRNA) of the DNA strand
steps of transcription
Steps of Transcription
  • Separation of Strands:

enzymes unzip DNA in the bases

  • Base Pairing: free RNA ribonucleotides pair with complementary DNA bases
    • Only happens to ONE strand of DNA
    • Uracil bonds with Adenine of the DNA
steps of transcription cont d
Steps of Transcription (cont’d)
  • Ribonucleotides Bond: ribonucleotides of mRNA bond due to an enzyme
  • Leaves Nucleus: mRNA strand breaks away from DNA and enters the cytoplasm (where translation begins)
  • Process of converting information in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids that will make a protein
steps of translation
Steps of Translation
  • Ribosomes Attach: mRNA enters the cytoplasm where ribosomes of rRNA attach to it
  • rRNA reads mRNA: rRNA slides down the mRNA and signals to tRNA to bring the right amino acid
    • Start codon (AUG) signals where to begin making the protein
  • tRNA has a clover-leaf shape with an anti-codon attached to one of the “leaves” and an amino acid attached to the “stem”
steps of translation cont d
Steps of Translation (cont’d)
  • tRNA brings amino acids: tRNA with the correct anti-codon arrives and temporarily bonds to the codon of mRNA
  • rRNA slides and reads: rRNA continues to slide down the mRNA and reads next codon new tRNA
steps of translation cont d1
Steps of Translation (cont’d)
  • Amino acids join: an enzyme joins the amino acids (of tRNA) with peptide bonds
    • Once joined, the now amino acid free tRNA detaches from the mRNA strand
    • This process continues until a stop codon (UAA/UAG/UGA) is read
transcription translation1
Transcription & Translation:


A chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds PROTEIN

transcription translation sequence
Transcription & Translation Sequence

Animation of Protein Synthesis