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Male Reproductive System. CHAPTER 16. Male Reproductive System Overview. Functions of male reproductive system Produce, sustain, and transport sperm Propel sperm during sexual intercourse Copulation Produce testosterone. Male Reproductive Primary Organs. Testicles = male gonads

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male reproductive system overview
Male Reproductive System Overview
  • Functions of male reproductive system
    • Produce, sustain, and transport sperm
    • Propel sperm during sexual intercourse
      • Copulation
    • Produce testosterone
male reproductive primary organs
Male Reproductive Primary Organs
  • Testicles = male gonads
    • Small ovoid glands
    • Responsible for production of sperm
      • Seminiferous tubules
    • Responsible for secretion of testosterone
  • Scrotum
    • Sac located posterior to the penis
      • Suspended from the perineum
    • Houses the testicles
male reproductive accessory organs
Male Reproductive Accessory Organs
  • Epididymis
    • Tightly coiled tubule that resembles a comma
    • Sperm mature in the epididymis, becoming fertile and motile
      • Mature sperm are stored in lower portion of epididymis
male reproductive accessory organs5
Male Reproductive Accessory Organs
  • Vas Deferens
    • Also called the ductus deferens
    • Straight tube continuous with the epididymis
      • Enlarges to form an sacklike dilation (ampulla) near prostate gland
      • Merges with the seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct
male reproductive accessory organs6
Male Reproductive Accessory Organs
  • Seminal vesicles
    • Secrete a thick, yellowish fluid known as seminal fluid
    • Constitutes a large part of the volume of the semen
male reproductive accessory organs7
Male Reproductive Accessory Organs
  • Prostate gland
    • Lies just below the urinary bladder
      • Surrounds the base of the urethra as it leaves the bladder
    • Transports thin, milky colored, alkaline secretions that enhance the motility of the sperm
      • Secretion also helps neutralize the secretions within the vagina
    • Muscular action of gland aids in expelling semen from the body
male reproductive accessory organs8
Male Reproductive Accessory Organs
  • Urethra
    • Serves both urinary system and male reproductive system
    • Transports urine from the bladder and semen when ejaculated, to the outside of the body
  • Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper’s Glands)
    • Secrete alkaline, mucous-like fluid that provides lubrication during sexual intercourse
male reproductive accessory organs9
Male Reproductive Accessory Organs
  • Penis
    • Male organ of copulation
    • Tip of penis called the glans penis
    • Prepuce or Foreskin
      • Retractable fold of skin that covers the glans penis
    • Urethra extends the length of the penis and ends as an opening at the tip of the glans penis
      • Opening is called the urinary meatus
pathological conditions

PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Male

Reproductive System

anorchism
Anorchism
  • Pronounced
    • (an-OR-kizm)
  • Defined
    • Absence of one or both testicles
balanitis
Balanitis
  • Pronounced
    • (bal-ah-NYE-tis)
  • Defined
    • Inflammation of glans penis and mucous membrane beneath it
benign prostatic hypertrophy
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Pronounced
    • (bee-NYEN pross-TAT-ik high-PER-troh-fee)
  • Defined
    • Benign enlargement of prostate gland
    • Creates pressure on upper part of urethra or neck of the bladder, causing obstruction to flow of urine
carcinoma of the prostate
Carcinoma of the Prostate
  • Pronounced
    • (car-sin-OH-mah of the PROSS-tayt)
  • Defined
    • Malignant growth within prostate gland
    • Creates pressure on upper part of urethra
carcinoma of the testes
Carcinoma of the Testes
  • Pronounced
    • (car-sin-OH-mah of the TESS-teez)
  • Defined
    • Malignant tumor of testicle that appears as a painless lump
    • Also called testicular cancer
cryptorchidism
Cryptorchidism
  • Pronounced
    • (kript-OR-kid-izm)
  • Defined
    • Condition of undescended testicle(s)
    • Absence of one or both testicles from scrotum
epispadias
Epispadias
  • Pronounced
    • (ep-ih-SPAY-dee-as)
  • Defined
    • Congenital defect in which urethra opens on the upper side of the penis at some point near the glans
hydrocele
Hydrocele
  • Pronounced
    • (high-DROH-seel)
  • Defined
    • Accumulation of fluid in any saclike cavity or duct
    • Particularly the scrotal sac or along the spermatic cord
hypospadias
Hypospadias
  • Pronounced
  • (high-poh-SPAY-dee-as)
  • Defined
    • Congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of at the end
impotence
Impotence
  • Pronounced
    • (IM-poh-tens)
  • Defined
    • Inability of a male to achieve or sustain an erection of the penis
inguinal hernia
Inguinal Hernia
  • Pronounced
    • (ING-gwih-nal HER-nee-ah)
  • Defined
    • Protrusion of a part of the intestine through a weakened spot in the muscles and membranes of inguinal region of the abdomen
      • Intestine pushes into, and sometimes fills, the entire scrotal sac in the male
orchitis
Orchitis
  • Pronounced
    • (or-KIGH-tis)
  • Defined
    • Inflammation of the testes due to a virus, bacterial infection, or injury
      • Condition may affect one or both testes
      • Typically results from the mumps virus
phimosis
Phimosis
  • Pronounced
    • (fih-MOH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Tightness of the foreskin (prepuce) of the penis that prevents it from being pulled back
      • Opening of the foreskin narrows due to the tightness and may cause some difficulty with urination
premature ejaculation
Premature Ejaculation
  • Pronounced
    • (premature ee-jak-yoo-LAY-shun)
  • Defined
    • Discharge of seminal fluid prior to complete erection of the penis or immediately after the penis has been introduced into the vaginal canal
prostatitis
Prostatitis
  • Pronounced
    • (pross-tah-TYE-tis)
  • Defined
    • Inflammation of the prostate gland
      • May be acute or chronic
      • May be due to bacterial invasion
varicocele
Varicocele
  • Pronounced
    • (VAIR-ih-koh-seel)
  • Defined
    • Abnormal dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord leading to the testicle
slide28
AIDS
  • Pronounced
    • (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
  • Defined
    • Deadly virus that destroys the body’s immune system by invading the helper T lymphocytes (T cells)
    • T cells play an important part in the body’s immune response
      • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates itself within the T cells, destroys the lymphocyte, and then invades other lymphocytes
chlamydia
Chlamydia
  • Pronounced
    • (klah-MID-ee-ah)
  • Defined
    • Sexually transmitted bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the cervix in women and inflammation of the urethra and the epididymis in men
genital herpes
Genital Herpes
  • Pronounced
    • (JEN-ih-tal HER-peez)
  • Defined
    • Highly contagious viral infection of the male and female genitalia, caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV-2)
    • Also known as venereal herpes
      • Differs from other sexually transmitted diseases in that it can recur spontaneously once the virus has been acquired
genital warts
Genital Warts
  • Pronounced
    • (JEN-ih-tal warts)
  • Defined
    • Small, cauliflower-like, fleshy growths usually seen along the penis in the male and in or near the vagina in women
      • Caused by human papillomavirus (HPV)
      • Transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse
gonorrhea
Gonorrhea
  • Pronounced
    • (gon-oh-REE-ah)
  • Defined
    • Sexually transmitted bacterial infection of the mucous membrane of the genital tract in men and women, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
      • Spread by sexual intercourse with an infected partner
      • Can be passed from infected mother to her infant during the birth process
syphilis
Syphilis
  • Pronounced
    • (SIF-ih-lis)
  • Defined
    • Sexually transmitted disease characterized by lesions that may involve any organ or tissue
      • Spread by sexual intercourse with an infected partner
      • If left untreated, disease passes through three stages, each with characteristic signs and symptoms
syphilis34
Syphilis
  • Primary syphilis
    • Characterized by appearance of a small, painless, red pustule on the skin or mucous membrane
      • Known as a chancre
      • Develops on the penis of the male and the labia of the vagina in females
      • Appears within 10 days to a few weeks after exposure
syphilis35
Syphilis
  • Secondary syphilis
    • Occurs approximately two months later if primary phase is left untreated
    • Dominant sign is non-itching rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
      • May also experience headache, sore throat, fever, malaise, anorexia, and bone and joint pain
syphilis36
Syphilis
  • Secondary syphilis
    • Disease is still contagious during second stage
      • Can be treated effectively with penicillin
    • Dormant period follows secondary stage
      • For 5 to 20 years before reappearing in its final stage
syphilis37
Syphilis
  • Tertiary syphilis
    • Final and most serious stage of the untreated disease
    • By third stage, lesions have invaded body organs and systems
      • Lesions of tertiary syphilis are not reversible, do not respond to treatment with penicillin and can lead to life-threatening disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and heart
syphilis38
Syphilis

Primary Syphilis: Male

trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis
  • Pronounced
    • (trik-oh-moh-NYE-as-sis)
  • Defined
    • Sexually transmitted protozoal infection of the vagina, urethra, or prostate
    • Causative organism is Trichomonas vaginalis
      • Women will experience itching and burning, and a strong-smelling vaginal discharge that is greenish-yellow
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures41
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Castration
    • Surgical removal of the testicles in the male (or the ovaries in the female)
    • Known as an orchidectomy or orchiectomy in the male
    • Known as an oophorectomy in the female
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures42
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Cystoscopy
    • Process of visualizing the urinary tract through a cystoscope that has been inserted in the urethra
  • Circumcision
    • Surgical procedure in which the foreskin (prepuce) of the penis is removed
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures43
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

Circumcision

  • Before
  • After procedure
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures44
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • FTA-ABS Test
    • Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test
    • Serological test for syphilis (performed on blood serum)
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures45
Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures
  • Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
    • Radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract
      • Contrast dye is injected intravenously and multiple x-ray films are taken as the medium is cleared from the blood by the glomerular filtration of the kidney
    • Also known as intravenous pyelography or excretory urogram
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures46
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Orchidectomy
    • Surgical removal of a testicle
    • Also called orchiectomy
  • Orchidopexy
    • Surgical fixation of a testicle
    • Also called orchiopexy
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures47
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Semen analysis
    • Assessment of a sample of semen for volume, viscosity, sperm count, sperm motility, and percentage of any abnormal sperm
  • Radical prostatectomy
    • Surgical removal of the entire prostate gland as a treatment for cancer
  • Suprapubic prostatectomy
    • Surgical removal of the prostate gland by making an incision into the abdominal wall, just above the pubis
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures48
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR or TURP)
    • Surgical removal of prostate gland by inserting a resectoscope through urethra and into bladder to remove small pieces of tissue from prostate
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures49
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Vasectomy
    • Surgical cutting and tying of the vas deferens to prevent passage of sperm, consequently preventing pregnancy
    • Male sterilization
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures50
Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures
  • VDRL test
    • Serological test for syphilis widely used to test for primary and secondary syphilis
      • Performed on blood serum
    • VDRL = Venereal Disease Research Laboratory
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures51
Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures
  • Wet mount; Wet prep
    • Microscopic examination of fresh vaginal or male urethral secretions to test for presence of living organisms
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