Winter Olympics 1960 By: Alison Gaffney, Nick Brosari and Mike d’Entremont
http://winchurchill.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/SquawValley.jpghttp://winchurchill.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/SquawValley.jpg Location • Squaw Valley, California • First games to be televised • Had a 50-room lodge • Built Olympic Village Inn to house 750 athletes under one roof for the first time • Huge snowstorm just before the Game opened http://www.destination360.com/north-america/us/california/lake-tahoe/squaw-valley
Cross-Country Skiing • Started and finished at station just west of Tahoma • Went from what is now the sugar Pine Point to Homewood • Timing buildings and aid stations were scattered through out the course • 4 parts for men=15km, 30km, 50km and 4x10 km relay; 2 for women= 10km and 3x5 km relay Håkon Brusveen Gold: Men’s 15km Norway Maria Gusakova Gold: Women’s 10km Soviet Union Sixten Jernberg Gold: Men’s 30km Sweden http://www.rovdyr.org/bilder/brusveen.jpg http://visualrian.ru/en/images/zooms/RIAN_100649.jpg http://www.rankopedia.com/CandidatePix/72770.gif
http://www.lefigaro.fr/medias/2010/02/13/a6548514-1804-11df-aa90-ea2df10e5eef.jpghttp://www.lefigaro.fr/medias/2010/02/13/a6548514-1804-11df-aa90-ea2df10e5eef.jpg Alpine Skiing • Courses thought to be dull • US starts = “Silver Queens” Penny Pitou and Betsy Snite • 3 events for each gender: downhill, slalom and giant slalom http://www.theskichannel.com/images/top50olympians/Betsy%20snite.jpg Jean Vuarnet Gold: Men’s downhill France 1st to compete on metal skis Penny Pitou Silver: Women’s downhill and giant slalom USA Betsy Snite Silver: Women’s slalom USA http://media.nj.com/skiing/photo/pennyjpg-f06219c6afd91269_large.jpg
Biathlon & Nordic Combined Biathlon • Combines cross-country skiing and rife shooting • Men only Nordic Combined • Ski jumping and a 15 km cross-country race • Men only Georg Thoma Gold: Nordic Combined Germany http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e5/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-78885-0001,_Ehrung_f%C3%BCr_Ingrid_Kr%C3%A4mer.jpg/200px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-78885-0001,_Ehrung_f%C3%BCr_Ingrid_Kr%C3%A4mer.jpg Klas Lestander Gold: Biathlon Sweden http://svt.se/content/1/c6/51/86/70/squawvalley_250.jpg
Ski Jumping • Specially constructed hill • Designed by German Heini Klopfer • 3 hills • 80 meter used for Olympic event • Men only Helmut Recknagel Gold: ski jumping Germany http://images.beijing2008.cn/20070503/Img214046312.jpg
Figure Skating • Points based on 60% skills and 40% on free skate • Men’s, women’s and pair’s • Each judge places each skater • Final placement by majority placement EX: if a skater is placed 1st by the majority of judges, they get 1st place Barbra Wagner and Robert Paul Gold: pair’s Canada David Jenkins Gold: men’s USA Carol Heiss Gold: Women’s USA http://www.skatecanada.ca/Portals/2/content/wagnerpaul.jpg http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/olympics/images/attachement/jpg/site1/20070727/001aa018ff9c08139a0a0e.jpg http://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/0djN4oM3Cp0Rp/220x.jpg
Speed Skating http://www.nfos.info/bilder/skann0002.jpg • First year for Olympics for women • First time outdoors on artificial ice • One of the fastest rinks in the world • Disassembled after Games • Many records broken • Men = 500m; 1,500m; 5,000m and 10,000m • Women = 500m; 1,000m; 1,500m and 3,000m Knut Johannesen Gold: men’s 10,000 Norway Beat world record by 46 secs Jeanne Ashworth Bronze: women’s 500 USA Bill Disney Silver: men’s 500 USA http://www.hickoksports.com/images/ashworth_jeanne.jpg http://www.nationalspeedskatingmuseum.org/images/skaters/disney-olsen.jpg
Why were these Games significant? • They were the first televised Games • They were the first year having women’s speed skating • It was during the cold War, so the USSR and the USA were already at odds • The USSR got more medals than the USA so that made people feel were falling behind the Soviet Union in more then just space travel
What does this show us about the people in 1960? • The USA was very nervous about falling behind the Soviet Union • But, we continued being involved in world affairs even though we were falling a bit behind
HOCKEY USA vs. Soviet Union during the Cold War
Who was Involved? • Teams: USA, USSR, Japan, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Australia, Canada. • Players (USA):Bill and Bob Cleary, Roger and Bill Christian, Paul Johnson, John Mayasich, Tommy Williams, Bob mcVey, Jack Kirrane, Weldy Olson, and Dick Meredith. • Coach (USA):Jack Riley.
Problems at the Rink The 1960 Winter Olympics were held in Squaw Valley, California. The hockey tournament was held at the Blyth Arena. There was much controversy over this because the arena was small- it only had one rink. Many teams were forced to practice and compete outside, which lead to terrible conditions with the weather not cooperating. The ice was always slushy and was very poor quality. The schedule was also thought of as cruel- the teams had to play 8 games in 10 days- and the players were on the ice twice in one day, practicing for the game later on.
Tournament Summary In the first round of play the U.S. team played Australia. They were the underdogs going into the tournament and were not even expected to make it passed Australia. They won that game 12-1, but people still weren't convinced saying it was Australia and that they were never that good. They next played the Czechoslovakia team and won that 7-5. They then played the Swedish team who was expected to win third if not higher. They won that game 6-3. Next was Germany who they easily won 9-1 against. Hopes where high, but the future looked bleak because they next played the Canadians, who was expected to win gold, and if they won that then they would still play the Soviets in the semi finals. The game against the Canadians was a tough game, but due to McCartan's 39 saves the team won 2-1. Next they played the Soviets.
Tournament Summary (cont.) This was going to be a tough match and since they had not been expected to win against the Canadians they definitely were expected to win here, were the Soviets had went 4-0 in all past Soviet U.S. encounters. It was a very physical game with a lot of hard hits, but no fights. At the end of the second period the U.S. found themselves down by 1. Down 2-1 Bill Christian scored the game tieing goal early in the third period. Then Bill Christian and his brother Roger, along with wingman Tommy Williams teamed up on a breakaway and scored the go ahead goal at 14:59 of the third period. McCartan refused to let another goal in and the US Olympic team beat the Soviets 3-2. After that game the US played Czechoslovakia again winning and for the first time taking home a Gold medal in hockey.
USSR’s Strategy • At the time, the Olympics were strictly for amateurs. None of the hockey players on the USA team had gone pro or played in the NHL. However, USSR cheated the system. They technically sponsored the best players they could find by giving them a job in the military. This caused problems among the other teams and made USA hate communism and the USSR even more.
More than Just a Game When the US. played the USSR in the semi finals, it was more than just a game. It was a battle for all of America, facing their greatest rival in a game on ice. It was significantly important because it USA and the USSR were in the middle of the Cold War. They had been going head to head as the most powerful countries in the world. now they had a chance to face off in something other than the space race, or the political battle for/against communism.
What does this tell us about the people in 1960? • They look at any competitiveness from the Soviets as a challenge • Though high of themselves and when the Soviets would win it would scare them because it seemed as though the Soviets were better, even if it was only hockey
Works Cited • Allen, Kevin. “The First Miracle on Ice.” ESPN Classic. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://espn.go.com/classic/s/1960_ice_mircle_1226.html>. • “Biathlon.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia, n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biathalon>. • “Biatholon at the 1960 Squaw Valley Olympic Games.” Sports Reference/Olympic Sports. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/winter/1960/BIA/>. • “Figure Skating at the 1960 Squaw Valley Winter Games:.” Sports Reference - Olympic Sports. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/winter/1960/FSK/womens-singles.html>. • “Lake Tahoe’s Westshore: Site of the 1960 Winter Olympics Cross-Country Ski Events.” Tahoe Country. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.tahoecountry.com/oldtimetahoe/olympics.html>. • “1960 Olympic Figure Skating Champion Carol Heiss.” About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://figureskating.about.com/od/profilesoffamousskaters/p/heiss.htm>. • “The 1960 U.S. Olympic Team.” U.S. Hockey Hall of Fame. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.usahockey.com/ushhof/default.aspx?NAV=AF_01&id=257848&DetailedNews=yes>. • “1960 Winter Olympics: Games Return to North America.” www.skimuseum.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.skimuseum.net/pdf/1956-1960.pdf>. • “Nordic Combined at the 1960 Squaw Valley Winter Games:.” Sports Reference - Olympic Sports. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/winter/1960/NCO/mens-individual.html>. • “Ski Jumping at the 1960 Squaw Valley Winter Games.” Sports Reference - Olympic Sports. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/winter/1960/SKJ/>. • “Speed Skating at the 1960 Squaw Valley Winter Games.” Sports Reference - Olympic Sports. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/winter/1960/SSK/>. • “The VIII Winter Olympic Games.” Squaw Valley USA. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.squaw.com/winter/history_olympics.html>.