Objectives • Pre-History Phases • The Roman Invasions • Anglo-Saxon Invasions
Pre-history phases • The history of a language is intimately bound up with the history of the peoples who speak it.
The Roman Invasions • 55 b.C.—Julius Caesar invades Britain. • 43 a.d.—Emperor Claudius conquers Britain. • Occupy Britain for nearly 400 years.
The island we know as England was occupied by a race of people called the Celts. One of the tribes was called the Brythons or Britons (where we get the term Britain) • The Celts were Pagans and their religion was know as “animism” a Latin word for “spirit.” Celts saw spirits everywhere
Druids were their priests; their role was to go between the gods and the people
Important Events During Roman Occupation • Julius Caesar begins invasion/occupation in 55 B.C. • Occupation completed by Claudius in 1st cent. A.D. • Hadrian’s Wall built about 122 A.D. • Romans “leave” in 410 A.D. because Visigoths attack Rome
St. Augustine lands in Kent in 597 and converts King Aethelbert (king of Kent, the oldest Saxon settlement) to Christianity; becomes first Archbishop of Canterbury
Roman Influence • Founded cities • Built walls, baths, roads, theaters • Intermarried with Celts. • Place names—Lancaster, Manchester, Winchester, London, Bath • Latin becomes the prestige language of education and social life
Romans Leave Britain • Roman Empire is threatened by invading Germanic tribes. • 410 a.d.—Emperor Honorius summons all Roman troops back to Rome. • Celtic tribes in Britain are left defenseless against future invasions.
So what language is being used in British Isles at this time? • Celtic languages—the native language of the people. • Latin—the language of Rome was the prestige language. • Education • Government • Written language
Anglo-Saxon Invasions • The Anglo-Saxon period is the earliest recorded time period in English history.
The Anglo-Saxons form the basis of English culture, religion, and language and ruled England for 600 years. The term Anglo-Saxon refers to a group of settlers from the German regions of Angeln and Saxony who took over England after the fall of the Roman Empire.
With the Romans gone, a power vacuum existed • Germanic tribes from the mainland soon began to fill that vacuum. • 450 a.d Angles and Saxons invade from Baltic shores of Germany, and the Jutes invade from the Jutland peninsula in Denmark
Nine Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms eventually became the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy (England not unified), or “Seven Sovereign Kingdoms”
Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy • Heptarchy = Seven Kingdoms • Kent • Essex (East Saxon) • Sussex (South Saxon) • East Anglia • Northumbria • Mercia • Wessex (West Saxon
The Anglo-Saxons society • The Anglo-Saxons were a pagan society, but information about their lives and culture has been told by Christian writers. • The Anglo-Saxons maintained order in their society through social means. Society was led by powerful leaders (a ring-giver, lord or lady) who rewarded their servants for various activities
Anglo-Saxons enjoyed serving their lords and found it hard to survive if they were not supported by their lords. • Women had just as much power as men did during the Anglo-Saxon period.
Songs and poetry were very important components of Anglo-Saxon society. Poetry was first told orally but was written starting in 733. Archbishops were known to sing songs to attract crowds for their sermons.
One of the most valued members of Anglo-Saxon society was the scop (poet), who discussed social and cultural values in his work. Scops were responsible for maintaining a person's reputation through song after his or her death.
Exercise • The first settlers of England were • a. German b. Anglo-Saxon c. Briton
Write four of the most common influences of the Romans. • What was the language of education & prestige during the Roman period?
Write briefly about the Anglo-Saxon society. • Who is the Scop and what is his responsibility?
Important sites • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FxzM_Y0cYJA How the Celts Saved Britain - HD - 1of2 (BBC) - A New Civilization • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uIBkv7pU9Eo "How The Celts Saved Britain" (part 2of2) Dark ages and the Celts • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n09vrVfI168Anglo Saxon house - a reconstruction