World War II . 1941-1945. The American Home front & the War. ** The ABC-1 Agreement – get Germany first. Challenges : Time- Expense- no problem *How to retool for war production? US had to feed, clothe, & arm itself while transporting forces to distant regions as Europe & Pacific
World War II 1941-1945
The American Home front & the War **The ABC-1 Agreement– get Germany first. Challenges: • Time- • Expense- no problem • *How to retool for war production? • US had to feed, clothe, & arm itself while transporting forces to distant regions as Europe & Pacific • plus send food & munitions to it’s Allies (15,000,000)
The Shock of War • Pearl Harbor attack unified Americans as nothing else could= isolationists & pro-Hitlerites melted away • sped up assimilation of many ethnic groups into US society= well settled communities= crucial to FDR & Democrats • Virtually no “witch hunts” ** 110,000 Japanese-Americans on US Pacific coast were forced into concentration camps (2/3 were US born). • millions of dollars in property & earnings lost • *Korematsu v. US(1944)- Supreme Court upheld Japanese relocation to camps- based on military urgency-not race. • 1988- US apologized & paid survivors $20,000 • New Deal Programs(CCC, WPA etc) wiped out by conservatives in Congress (1942)-”Dr. New Deal” replaced by “Dr. Win the War”
Japanese-American 442 Regimental Combat Unit Most highly decorated unit of the war & in US history 3,800 men 22 medal of honor recipients 314% casualty rate 9,486 Purple Hearts Each man injured average of 3 times!!
War Mobilization • Military orders= $100 million in 1942 alone! • US “ Arsenal of Democracy”- key to winning the war! • The War Production Board- orchestrated factory production to support the war effort. • Halt production of non-essential goods (cars) • Assigned priorities for transportation & access to raw materials (national speed limit & gas rationing after Japan seized British Malaya & Dutch East Indies) • Office of Price Administration- set regulations on rationing & prices of products= kept inflation under control. • The War Labor Board (WLB)- set ceilings on wages
Labor & the War • Labor union membership grew from 10 million to 13 million • strikes & walkouts did occur= resented government controls Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (1943)- power to federal government to seize & operate industries under strike. • US government seized RR & COALMINES • Strikes against government operated industry= illegal. • US Work stoppages= less than 1% Farmers- despite loss of labor (for war effort)- efficiencies increased (new machinery- fertilizers)=record harvests (1944-1945)
Military, Industrial, & Farm Mobilization • nearly 15 million men & 216,000 WOMEN enlisted in armed forces in WWII • WAAC’s (Army), WAVES (navy), SPARS (Coast Guard) • Some key industrial & agricultural workers exempt from draft • *The Bracero Program (1942- 1965) US –Mexican agreement that allowed Mexican agricultural workers (braceros) to enter the US as farm workers. • 6 million women went to work in war factories.** (“Rosie theRiveter”)= symbol of the working woman. • Vast majority of women (with husbands & small children) did not enter the workforce • At the end of the war- 2/3 of female war workers left labor force • Became mothers of “Baby Boom” (1945-163)
Women at work in WWII “Rosie the Riveter” –symbol of working woman WWII
Wartime Migrations • War factories lured Americans to move to cities of : Los Angeles, Detroit, Seattle, & Baton Rouge. • *The Sunbelt- Americans moved to the southern & western US to work in war factories= huge growth! • FDR & government targeted the South for most government war industries ($6 billion). • Black Migration-1.6 million blacks left the South & moved to war plants in West & North= race relations became a national not a regional (southern) issue. • Migration north intensified after the war (mechanical cotton picker) • A. Phillip Randolph(Brotherhood of Sleeping car Porters)-threatened “March on Washington (1941) to protest for equal opportunity in war jobs & armed forces= FDR issued executive order forbidding discrimination in war factories. • Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)- created to enforce.
Blacks in the Military • Blacks drafted assigned to service branches not- combat units early on. • served in segregated units commanded by white officers • * Tuskegee Airmen- never lost a plane (escorted US bombers to protect) • the war led blacks to challenge the status quo (Jim Crow etc.)= **The Double V Campaign-victory over dictators abroad & racism at home. • NAACP- Membership reached 500,000 • CORE (Congress of Racial Equality-1942)- founded to attack segregation using sit-ins. • Smith v. Allwright (1944) –unconstitutional to deny membership to Political Parties (Dems. of the South)
Native Americans & Blacks during the war & after • Mechanical cotton picker= 5 million black tenant farmers & sharecroppers moved north after the war • 1970- half of all blacks lived outside the South –in urban areas. 2. Native Americans- moved off reservations during the war to work in war factories • 1960- half of NA lived in cities (most in Southern California) • 25,000 served in armed forces (Navajo “Code Talkers”) • Mexican-Americans- filled farms jobs; “Zoot Suit Riots”-1943. * Brutal race riots broke out in Detroit =25 blacks killed & 9 whites.
The War & American Prosperity • Most Americans at home suffered little from the war • WWII ended the Great Depression • GNP- 100 million (1940); $200 Billion (1945) • Corporate Profits – (1940) $6 Billion; $12Billion (1944) • *Disposable Income- doubled • * Post war- inflation shot up (pent up demand) Era of Big Government intervention- rationing, US defense industries hired millions, unions monitored • “warfare-welfare state”- military industrial complex created • Wartime bill= $330 Billion (10 times WWI) • income tax expended (4 times more people- max rate=90%), borrowed; 40% by taxes/tariffs, 60% borrowed (war bonds) • National debt= $259 Billion by 1945 (spending $10 million /hour) • Government role expands- day care, housing, healthcare, GI Bill after the war- pays for more education
Japanese Offensive in the Pacific After the attack on Pearl Harbor-the Japanese invaded & seized various Pacific targets. • Guam, Wake Island & Philippines (simultaneously with Pearl) • Port of Hong Kong & British Malaya (critical supply of rubber & tin) • Cut the Burma Road (US had been supplying China with goods)- Chinese leader Chang Kai-shek • Dutch East Indies- seized for oil reserves
map/japan • JAPANESE EXPANSION • Dec. 7, 1941, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor • US declares war on Japan. • 1942 • Philippines • Bataan Death March
The Philippines • Japan attacked over a 5 month period • faced American (20,000) & many more Filipino defenders • Americans on the islands led by Gen. Douglas McArthur (ordered to leave the islands to avoid capture) • McArthur left secretly for Australia “I Shall Return” • American soldiers & Filipinos surrendered to the Japanese *The Bataan Death March-US & Filipino defenders forced to march 80 miles to prisoner of war camps * Corregidor in Manila Harbor fell May 6, 1942= Japan controlled all of Philippines!
Japan attempts to Attack Australia • Australia- important supply line for US forces in Pacific • Japan captured New Guinea (North of Australia) & invaded Solomon Islands. • *Battle of the Coral Sea(May 1942)- Japanese advance towards Australia stopped; 1st time all fighting done by carrier-based aircraft . * Significance- Australia-not invaded; US supply lines stay open.
map/japan • TURNING POINT BATTLES • 1942 • Coral Sea • Midway • Midway virtually destroyed Japanese Navy. • 1943 • Continued “island hopping” strategy
**Battle of Midway, June 3-6 1942 • Midway Islands= more than 1000 miles NW of Honolulu • Japanese Goal: capture to use as base to launch attacks against Pearl Harbor, attack remnants of US naval fleet at Pearl- gain US peace deal? • June 3-6, 1942- US navy carriers led by Admiral ChesterNimitz attacked the Japanese force. • All fighting done by aircraft • Japanese lost 4 carriers-called off attack • Significance- halted Japanese offensive in Pacific (Japan did capture islands off Alaska coast)= Americans worried about invasion= construction of “Alcan” Highway
US takes the Offensive in the Pacific Battle of Guadalcanal-August 1942- US ground forces invaded Guadalcanal Islands (in the Solomon's); to protect supply line to Australia through SW Pacific. • Japan surrendered the islands Feb. 1943 • Japanese losses = 20,000; US losses= 1,700 • US & Australian forces led by Gen. McArthur held New Guinea • US ships & subs attacked Japanese supply ships & troops ships • August 1944- New Guinea recaptured by US
New Strategy- **“Island Hopping” • “island hopping” strategy favored by Gen. McArthur • US forces bypass most heavily fortified islands held by Japan- capture nearby islands & launch bombing attacks. • Admiral Chester Nimitz coordinated attacks of air, naval, & ground forces • May & August 1943- Attu & Kiska retaken by US • Nov. 1943- Tarawa & Makin (Gilbert Islands) retaken • Jan. 1944- Marshall Islands retaken • *Target- capture Marianas Islands (US hoped to launch B-29 bomber attacks on Japan from there). • June 19,1944- assault on Marianas took place (250 Japanese aircraft destroyed- only 29 US planes) • July & August 1944- Marianas Islands fell to US- BOMBING BEGINS!!
Japanese Kamikaze Planes:The Scourge of the South Pacific Kamikaze Pilots • The last 2 years of the war, the Japanese resorted to “suicidal bombers” or Kamikaze bombers to destroy the American Navy. • Approximately 2,800 Kamikaze attackers sunk 34 Navy ships, damaged 368 others, killed 4,900 sailors, and wounded over 4,800.
The Battle of the Atlantic Hitler entered the war with ultramodern subs that hunted the North Atlantic, Caribbean, & Gulf of Mexico in “wolf packs”. 1942- over 10 months- 500 merchant ships were lost; 111 in the month of June alone. US tactics against subs- convoy system, depth charges, air patrols, radar , & bombing of sub factories= reduced Germany’s capacity. British code breakers broke the “enigma” secret German code= could pinpoint locations of U-boats ** Spring 1943- Allies had the upper hand in the Atlantic
North Africa May 1942- British bombers attack Cologne August 1942- US bombers & British bombers hit German cities The Germans in North Africa German commander Erwin Rommel went into N. Africa towards Egypt = fear he would capture the Suez Canal- British forces aided by US supplies stopped him at El Alamein (Oct. 1942) The Battle for the USSR oviet UnionSeptember 1942- the Soviets stopped German advance in the Battle of Stalingrad. More than 20 German divisions surrendered or killed Soviet Army recaptured 2/3 of Soviet territory from the Germans & advanced towards Germany.
The North Africa Campaign: The Battle of El Alamein, 1942 Gen. Ernst Rommel,The “Desert Fox” Gen. Bernard LawMontgomery(“Monty”)
The North Africa Invasion 1942- millions lay dead & Germany had overrun most of western Soviet Union. 20 million Soviets dead = Soviet leaders demanded that FDR & Churchill open a second front against Germany. US & Britain worried that Soviets might make a separate peace with Germany= promised a second front in 1942 (would not occur until 1944) OPERATION TORCH- Allied invasion of North Africa Nov. 1942- 1st joint US/British allied invasion of N. Africa began (not the second front Stalin wanted) 400,000 men (850 ships) May 1943- Germany-Italian army surrendered in Tunisia Allies began to plan an invasion of Sicily & Italy
TURNING POINT BATTLES • 1942 • Allied invasion of North Africa • El Alamein Attack Hitler’s “soft underbelly”
The Soviets stopped German advance in the Battle of Stalingrad. More than 20 German divisions surrendered or killed Soviet Army recaptured 2/3 of Soviet territory from the Germans & advanced towards Germany. *The Battle of Stalingrad Sept. 1942
TURNING POINT BATTLES • 1942 • Allied invasion of North Africa • El Alamein Attack Hitler’s “soft underbelly” • 1943 • Battle of Stalingrad.
Battle of Stalingrad:Winter of 1942-1943 • Stalin orders his troops to the “scorched earth policy” • Germans are surrounded at Stalingrad and supply lines are cut by the Russians. Germans surrender to Soviets.
*Casablanca Conference 1943 FDR & Churchill met in French Morocco Key Allied Agreements: Step up Pacific war Agreed on an invasion of Sicily Agreed on “unconditional surrender” of the enemy Hoped unconditional surrender would reassure Stalin Controversial- critics said it would strengthen resolve of enemy.
TURNING POINT BATTLES • 1942 • Allied invasion of North Africa • El Alamein Attack Hitler’s “soft underbelly” • 1943 • Battle of Stalingrad. • Allied invasion of Sicily
Invasion of Sicily –August 1943 US/British invasion (amphibian) *Gen. Eisenhower planned & carried it out Mussolini deposed before the invasion & Italy surrendered (Sept. 1943)- still occupied by German troops! Invasion of Italy 1943 Met heavy German resistance Main German resistance at Casino Allies assaulted beach at Anzio= Italy fell June 4, 1944
The Battle for Sicily:June, 1943 General George S. Patton
The Italian Campaign Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” • Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov. 1942-May 1943 • George S. Patton leads American troops • Germans trapped in Tunisia - surrender over 275,000 troops.
*The Teheran Conference Dec. 1943 FDR, Churchill, & Stalin met in Iran Soviet agreed to launch attacks into Germany from East US, Britain, Canada would invade France & open second European Front in the west.
*The Normandy Invasion June 6, 1944 Planned by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower Code Name: Operation Overlord Goal- cross English channel & invade France- force Germany to fight two front war (the long awaited second front!) D-Day (June 6)- day chosen for the invasion Most massive amphibious invasion in history! 4,600 vessels By day one- Allies controlled the beachhead at Normandy & had air superiority. Day 4- 1 million men had landed on Normandy! Paris liberated August 1944 **First German city (Aachen) fell Oct. 1944
Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [“Operation Overlord”] US General Dwight Eisenhower was chosen by the Big 3 at the Tehran Conference (Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 1943) as the Supreme Allied Commander and was responsible for the D-Day Invasion.
= Canadian = Great Britain = United States