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History of the city. A rich history of over 1000 years, through which the city has changed hand several times . . The first defensive fortress was built during the reign of Stephen I of Hungary, around the 10 th century

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A rich history of over 1000 years, through which the city has changed hand several times.

  • The first defensive fortress was built during the reign of Stephen I of Hungary, around the 10th century
  • His wife, the Bavarian princess, Gisela of Hungary brought some German colonists who were settled at the Northern periphery of the city, called Villa Zotmar.
  • The fortress was built on an island of the Somes river, and was linked to the main roads by three bridges.
  • It was destroyed several times
  • The first attacks were in 1242, during the first Mongolian invasion by the Tartars
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Stephen V of Hungary

Bela IV of Hungary

  • In 1247, Satu Mare becomes the residence of Stephen V of Hungary, who, with his father’s permission takes control over the eastern part of the kingdom.
  • This way, the city gets equal privileges with the old capital, Szekesfehervar.
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In 1411, Satu Mare was given by Sigismund of Luxembourg as a fief to the Serbian despot George Brancovici, in change for Belgrad.

  • In 1460 it becomes a royal city again.
  • During Ottoman occupation, the city was led by the Principality of Transylvania.

Sigismund of Luxembourg

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Then the Habsburgs besieged it, leading the fleeing Transylvanian armies to set it on fire.

  •  The Austrian general Lazar Schwendi ordered the citadel to be rebuilt after the plans of Italian architect OttavioBaldigara
  •  In the Middle Ages, Satu Mare and Mintiu were two distinct entities, but between 1712 and 1715 the two gradually united their administration.
  • 1721, Emperor Charles VI recognised the union, at the same time granting Satu Mare the status of royal free city.
  •  A decade earlier, the Treaty of Szatmár was signed in the city, ending Rákóczi's War for Independence
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Beginning with the 19th century, Satu Mare began its transportation and commerce development

  • First industrial concerns opened in the county, factories like Unio, Princz etc.
  • In April 15, 1919, after the collapse in Austro-Hungary, SatuMare officially ceased to be part of Hungary becoming part of the Romania
  •  In 1940, the Second Vienna Award gave back Northern Transylvania, including SatuMare
  •  After 1945, the city became again part of Romania