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Urbanization. Population Growth. Britain was first European country to experience urban growth 50% in 1891 Population of Europe increased by 50% between 1870 – 1914 Better medical knowledge, better nutrition, and housing were key reasons. Poor Living Conditions.

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Presentation Transcript
population growth
Population Growth
  • Britain was first European country to experience urban growth
    • 50% in 1891
  • Population of Europe increased by 50% between 1870 – 1914
  • Better medical knowledge, better nutrition, and housing were key reasons
poor living conditions
Poor Living Conditions
  • Parks and open spaces were almost nonexistent
  • Many people lived in extremely overcrowded attics or cellars
  • Open drains and sewers flowed along streets
  • Total absence of public transportation
public health movement
Public Health Movement
  • Edwin Chadwick became important reformer of living conditions
  • Saw disease and death as primary causes of poverty
  • “Sanitary idea”
    • Believed disease could be prevented by cleaning up urban environment
  • By 1860’s many European cities had made progress in public sanitation
urban planning
Urban Planning
  • France took the lead during the reign of Napoleon
    • Redevelopment of Paris (wide boulevards, better housing, parks, and demolition of slums)
  • New system of fresh water supply and sewers were built
public transportation
Public Transportation
  • By 1890’s the electric streetcar had revolutionized city transportation
  • Created suburbs on outskirts
  • Electricity led to the creation of London’s subway system and Paris’ metro
  • By 1900, only 9% of Britain’s urban population was overcrowded
migration and emigration
Migration and emigration
  • Significant migration to cities from countryside continued
  • Huge numbers of southern and eastern Europeans migrated to America’s largest cities by 1880
social structure
Social Structure
  • Increased in standard of living occurred by the 2nd half of 19th century
  • Expansion of industry and technology created growing demand for experts with specialized knowledge
  • Industrial and urban development made society more diverse and less unified
families
Families
  • Romantic love became the most important reason for marriage by 1850
    • Standard of living allowed for younger age when married
  • Middle class females were monitored extremely close by parents
  • High rate of illegitimacy decreased after 1850
family
Family
  • After 1850 the work of most wives was increasingly distinct and separate from their husbands
    • Husbands became primary wage earners
    • Child rearing and home domain was wives responsibility
life at end of 19 th century
Life at end of 19th century
  • Increased standard of living in Europe
  • Better living conditions
  • Gradually higher wages
  • Lower food prices
  • Increased leisure times, more money spent
leisure
Leisure
  • Sports attraction increased
  • Soccer, rugby, bicycle, automobile races, and track and field
  • Increase number of women took part in activities
spending money
Spending Money
  • Cafes and taverns increased
  • Department stores grew significantly
  • Dance halls
  • Concerts
  • Plays
education
Education
  • State’s role increased in education
  • Significant increase in literacy
  • Girls had less access to secondary education than boys