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Vygotsky and his study on the use of Memory Aids . Presented by Sara Schaner & Mary Fritz. Background Info. November 5 th , 1896 born in Orsha, Belorussia Was raised in the city of Gomel “Little Professor” 1917 – Graduated from Moscow University

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vygotsky and his study on the use of memory aids

Vygotsky and his study on the use of Memory Aids

  • Presented by Sara Schaner & Mary Fritz
background info
Background Info
  • November 5th, 1896 born in Orsha, Belorussia
  • Was raised in the city of Gomel
  • “Little Professor”
  • 1917 – Graduated from Moscow University
  • 1917 - 1924 – Taught at two schools, diagnosed with a disease
  • 1924 – Phenomenal lecture & Marriage to Rosa Smekhova
  • June 10th, 1934 – Died at the age of 38
  • 1936 - 1958 – Works banned



vygotsky s theory of social development
Vygotsky’s Theory of Social Development
  • Stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition
  • Social learning tends to precede development
  • He argued that, “learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological functions” (The Educational Theory of Lev Vygotsky, 2010))
  • Vygotsky developed a socio- cultural approach to cognitive development.
social influence on cognitive development
Social Influence on Cognitive Development
  • Vygotsky believed that young children are curious and actively involved in their own learning and the discovery and development of new schema, placing emphasis on social contributions to the process of development
  • Important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skillful tutor
  • The tutor may model behaviors and/ or provide verbal instructions for the child. He refers to this as co-operative or collaborative dialogue.
  • The child seeks to understand the actions or instructions provided by the tutor then internalizes the info using it to guide or regulate their own performance.
cultural sign system and psychological tools
Cultural Sign System and Psychological Tools
  • Vygotsky refers to tools of intellectual adaptation that allow children to use the basic mental functions more effectively/adaptively, and these are culturally determined.
  • He proposed that people create “psychological tools” to master their own behavior
  • He refers to psychological tools:
    • Speech
    • Writing
    • Numbering System
    • Memory and memory aids
  • Through interaction within the socio-cultural environment, these are developed into more sophisticated and effective mental processes/strategies which he refers to as Higher Mental Functions
  • Vygotsky claimed that infants are born with the basic materials/abilities for intellectual development.
  • The most important sign system is speech.
  • It frees our thought and attention from the immediate situation.
  • It enables us to reflect on the past and plan for the future.
  • Speech separate us from other species
  • Two types of speech
    • Egocentric speech is talking to themselves aloud- prevalent to 4-7                           
    • Inner-speech is a kind of silent dialogue we have with ourselves 
writing and numbering system
Writing and Numbering System
  • Writing enables people to keep permanent record of information. 
  • Numbering systems enables to quantify objects by sight alone.
two principles of vygotsky s theory
Two Principles of Vygotsky’s Theory
  • Two main principles of Vygotsky’s work:
    • More Knowledgeable Other
    • Zone of Proximal Development
more knowledgeable other
More Knowledgeable Other
  • MKO: refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respects to a particular task, process, or concept.
  • Vygotsky notes that the older adult or teacher is not always the more knowledgeable one.
zone of proximal development
Zone of Proximal Development
  • ZPD is the concept that skills can be too difficult for a child to master on his/her own, but can be done with guidance and encouragement from a more knowledgeable person.
  • Related to the concept of MKO. This relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner.
  • Vygotsky sees the ZDP as the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given- allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own- developing higher mental functions
  • Vygotsky also views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies
  • Growth of the mind is so strongly influenced by the cultural line of development in the sign systems the culture provides Memory aids: Psychological tools
  • Through his experiments in this field, he explored children thinking led to metacognition- the awareness people have of their own thought process aka metamemory
vygotsky s works
Vygotsky’s Works

Educational Psychology

Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes

Thought and Language

our research
Our Research
  • We went to North Hills Preparatory School for our observations and experiment.
  • We were researching Vygotsky’s theory on Memory and how children used memory aids to help them recall
    • We paid attention to the use of inner-speech and ego-centric speech
    • We paid attention to their ages and what Vygotsky says is prevalent in specific age-groups
    • We paid attention to how each child organized the aids
  • We hypothesize that the children will organize the memory aids in four groups. Each group will have four pictures. Animal, baby animal, food, and resting place.
  • We hypothesize that the children will use ego-centric speech and inner speech to help them remember.
  • The older children will remember more than the younger children.
child one
Child One
  • 3rd Grade
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 8
  • Amount of Time = 2:50
  • How Many Recalled = 16
  • put things into pairs:
    • milk and kitten
    • puppy and dog house
    • cat and cat castle
    • dog and bones
    • horse, foal, hay
    • barn, chicken coop, seeds, chick, chicken
child two
Child Two
  • 2nd Grade
  • Gender = Female
  • Age = 8
  • Amount of Time = 2:56
  • How Many Recalled = 13
  • Put everything into one line across the table
    • Barn, coop, seeds, hen, chick, doghouse, puppy, bone, dog, cat, cat castle, milk, kitten, horse, foal, hay
child three
Child Three
  • 1st Grade
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 7
  • Amount of Time = 0:40
  • How Many Recalled = 4
  • Just laid all the cards out randomly on the table.
child four
Child Four
  • 4th Grade
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 10
  • Amount of Time = 1:08
  • How Many Recalled = 10
  • Put the cards into the order that we hypothesized
    • Horse, foal, hay, barn
    • Dog, puppy, bones, doghouse
    • Cat, kitten, cat-castle, milk
    • Chicken, hen, seeds, chicken coop
child five
Child Five
  • 1st Grade
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 6
  • Amount of Time = 1:04
  • How Many Recalled = 0
  • Did nothing.
child six
Child Six
  • 2nd Grade
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 8
  • Amount of Time = 1:38
  • How Many Recalled = 11
  • Separated all the animals from all of the objects.
    • Dog, Puppy, Cat, Kitten, Horse, Foal, Chicken, Chick
    • Hay, Seeds, Bones, Milk, Barn, Cat-Castle, Doghouse, Chicken Coop
child seven
Child Seven
  • 1st Grade
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 6
  • Amount of Time = 0:42
  • How Many Recalled = 6
  • Took the pile of cards into his hands and then would look at each card then flip the card upside onto the table
child eight
Child Eight
  • Kindergarten
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 5
  • Amount of Time = 1:37
  • How Many Recalled = 13
  • Horse, Barn, Foal, Hay
  • Dog, Bones, Puppy
  • Cat and Kitten
  • Chick, Chicken, Chicken Coop
  • Milk and Seeds
  • Cat-Castle and Doghouse
child nine
Child Nine
  • 2nd Grade
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 8
  • Amount of Time = 1:25
  • How Many Recalled = 14
  • Cat, Kitten, Cat-Castle
  • Horse, Hay, Foal, Barn
  • Chicken, Chick, Chicken Coop
  • Bone, Doghouse, Milk, Seeds, Puppy, Dog
child ten
Child Ten
  • 2nd Grade
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 8
  • Amount of Time = 1:14
  • How Many Recalled = 8
  • Put all the animals with their home
  • Bone with the dog group
  • Hay with the horse group
  • milk and seeds
child eleven
Child Eleven
  • 2nd Grade
  • Gender = Male
  • Age = 7
  • Amount of Time = 0:54
  • How Many Recalled = 11
  • Horse and Foal
  • Barn and Hay
  • Chicken and Chick
  • Seeds and Bone
  • Cat and Kitten
  • Doghouse and Chicken Coop
  • Dog and Puppy
  • Milk
  • Cat-Castle
child twelve
Child Twelve
  • 4th Grade
  • Gender = Female
  • Age = 9
  • Amount of Time = 0:47
  • How Many Recalled = 15
  • Put all the animals with their food
  • All the living places in another group
  • 1) Only one child used the grouping method that we hypothesized
    • Some of the groups were consistent
    • Most of the children who recalled majority of the pictures, organized the memory aids into a consistent group
  • 2) Evidence of inner-speech and ego-centric speech.
  • 3) Our data shows that this hypothesis was false.