Vygotsky. Ann Jones Institute of Educational Technology. Why ?. Research practices developed based on his writings: sociocultural studies distributed cognition; situated cognition (and communities of practice) activity theory (Vygotsky & Research, Harry Daniels, 2008).
Institute of Educational Technology
Research practices developed based on his writings:
situated cognition (and communities of practice)
(Vygotsky & Research, Harry Daniels, 2008)
The focus in this chapter is on understanding how connections are made between ideas and events over time. Specifically, we will explore how connections, between known and new (Rogoff 1990) and between everyday and scientific understandings (…) are negotiated in talk and interaction between learners and their their teachers, and how this process is mediated by representations and technologies
Main concepts from Vygotsky’s work
Brief examples of work where used
Vygotsky worked mainly in the 1920s in Russia
Charged with developing a system for educating pedagogically neglected children
Developed psychological theories
Work translated into English in 1970s
“Vygotsky’s..theory ..resembles a city. .. with broad new avenues and ancient, narrow backstreets known only to longtime residents, with noisy crowded plazas and quiet, deserted squares………………The city changes, grows, and is rebuilt. Whole neighbourhoods are demolished. The centre is sometimes over here, and sometimes over there. And so it goes” (Puzyrei, 2007)
“The Vygotsky described in the books of J. Wertsch (1985a) does not resemble the Vygotsky in the works of A.V. Brushlinskii (1994) or V.P.Zinchenko (1996)….”
….(Koshmanova, 2007) Also in Daniels, 2008 (p2)
Everything we do is ‘done through’, or mediated by, cultural artefacts:
…learning presupposes a specific social nature and a process by which children grow into the intellectual life of those around them (Vygotsky, 1978)
Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).(Vygotsky, 1978)
A concern with the processes of learning and on meaning making in social setting.
In investigating learning the focus is on individuals-using-technology-in-settings (Crook, 1994).
Seen as having two main purposes:
Children learn with the help of their speech, as well as their eyes and hands (Vygotsky, 1978 )
It enables people to share and consider new ideas and to reflect together on their actions” (Mercer, 2000 Words and Minds)
studied use of multiple digital tools for communication in HE (collaborative learning)
grounded in socio-cultural theories of learning
analysis looked for different kinds of communication: transmissive, ritual and transformative
Transmissive – go beyond common body of knowledge or ‘expand the ways of knowing’
Refer to challenges of building social presence, trust and commitment to task
… how can communications be understood as transmissive, ritual or transformative and what are the different roles of these different communication forms?
Communications data from the module; student-led group interviews; preparatory questionnaires; VLE discussion postings
Choice of tool related to friendship groups and home context, access and economic factors rather than task
Transformative communications mainly in instant messaging conversations but were scarce
I…. came up with a design framework that operationalised the 'Zone of Proximal Development'. The key thing .. was to .. quantify the nature of the assistance that you were giving peopleSo we built a Bayesian belief network model of the ZPD, and quantified the amount of assistance that people got. It's a piece of software called Ecolab. It offered learners domain-level help.
Develops notion ZPD of and contextualised learning
Software developed to help learners understand Science concepts
Help offered on basis of the learner model
Identifies the context and the resources
BUT how do we scaffold learning in a connected world where resources no longer tied to desktop
Learner generated context enabled through technology might support learners in collecting data, offering information resources, local resources, communication support
Rose Luckin’s work with ZPD
Crook, C. and Dymott, R. (2005) in Monteith, M. (ed.) Teaching Secondary School Literacies with ICT, Maidenhead, Open University Press.
Littleton and Kerawalla (2012) Trajectories of Inquiry Learning; in (eds Littleton Scanlon and Sharples) Orchestrating Inquiry Learning, Routledge
Mercer,N (2000) Routledge Words and Minds
Vygotsky and Pedagogy (2001) Daniels, H. Routledge
Vygotsky and Research (2008) Daniels, H. Routledge
Luckin, R. (2008) Computers & Education 50 (2008) 449–462 461
Timmis, Joubert, et. al (2010) Transmission, transformation & ritual: an investigation of students’ and researchers’ digitally mediated communications and collaborative work, Learning Media and Technology