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BASIC FACTS OF LEPROSY. Presented by DR. Md. Asadozzaman Asstt. Registrar of Dermatology & Venereology, MMCH Chief Guide : Dr. Shahab Uddin Ahmed Chowdhury Asso. Prof. of Dermatology & Venereology, MMCH Date : 20.10.2003. Origin of the Name

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basic facts of leprosy
BASIC FACTS OF LEPROSY
  • Presented by

DR. Md. Asadozzaman

Asstt. Registrar of Dermatology & Venereology, MMCH

Chief Guide :

Dr. Shahab Uddin Ahmed Chowdhury

Asso. Prof. of

Dermatology & Venereology,MMCH

Date : 20.10.2003

slide4
Origin of the Name
    • Lepros – Greek Word means scaly
    • Kustha from ‘Kusthani’ means eaten away
    • Leper – means person suffering from leprosy
definition
Definition

Most chronic, communicable, grannulomatous, infectious disease, primarily of skin & peripheral nerves but may involve all organs of the body except CNS, GIT & Lungs, caused by Mycobacterium Leprae.

historical background
Historical Background
  • Oldest scourge of man kind
  • Probably originated in India
  • The Vedas written about instruction for prevention of Leprosy in 1400 B.C.
contd
Contd…………
  • First authentic description and treatment with chaulmoogra oil is given in Sushruta Samita in 600 B.C.
  • The Hindo’s Lord Krishno’s son Samba had developed kustha
contd1
Contd……
  • Mycobacterium Leprae Bacilli first discovered by Norway Scientist Hansen in 1873. He had made unsuccessful attempt to infect himself as well as his chief and Father-in-Law Dr. Danielssen with material from leprosy patient.
epidemiology
Population at risk in the world – 1.6 Billions

Total No of Leprosy cases in the world 1.5 Millions

Endemic areas – 83% of Leprosy cases concentrated in only 5 countries – India, Brazil, Nigeria, Myanmar & Indonesia. Nearly 75% of world’s Leprosy patients are in South East Asia.

Highest No of Leprosy – In India (Bihar, Uttar Pradesh)

Epidemiology
contd2
Contd………….
  • Highly prevalent in Central Africa
  • Incubation Period : 2 – 5 years
  • Source of Infection : Infected Human considered as the only Source of Leprosy
  • Mode of Transmission: Close & prolonged contact is necessary, the nose is the prime portal of exit of the Bacilli.
  • High Natural Immunity – 95%
  • Affects all ages & Sexes
present status of leprosy in bangladesh
Present Status of Leprosy in Bangladesh
  • Reg. prevalence – 31/12/2002
  • Total Cases – 8943
    • SLPB – 421
    • PB – 4300
    • MB – 4222
  • Prevalence Rate : 0.63/10000
  • Detection – 9844

SLPB – 851

PB – 5489

MB – 3504

SSS : positive – 772

Child : 1101

Detection Rate – 0.762/10000

bacteriology
Common Name : Bacillus of Hansen

Morphology : Pleomorphic straight or slightly curved rod like, gram positive bacteria

Staining Properties by the Zeil Neelsen Method. Bacilli appears as solid staining (viable), fragmented and granular (dead bacilli)

Life Span – 6 months

Cannot grown in artificial media or tissue culture

Generation Time : 10 – 14 days

Bacteriology
technique of bacteriological examination
Technique of Bacteriological Examination
  • Slit Skin Smear
  • Nose Blow Smear
  • Nasal Scraping
reading of smears
Reading of Smears
  • BI – Density of Leprosy Bacilli in smears
  • MI – Percentage of living Bacilli among total
  • SFG – Percentage of solid, fragmented & granular Bacilli
treatment
TREATMENT
  • MDT – Multi Drug Therapy
  • FDT – Fixed Duration Treatment
  • RFT – Release From Treatment