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Chapter Overview. Network devices. Hubs. Broadcast For star topology Same as a repeater Operate at the physical layer. Modems. Short for Mo dulator/ Dem odulator Digital to analog then to digital Phone (POTS – plain old telephone service) DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

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chapter overview
Chapter Overview
  • Network devices
slide2
Hubs
  • Broadcast
  • For star topology
  • Same as a repeater
  • Operate at the physical layer
modems
Modems
  • Short for Modulator/Demodulator
    • Digital to analog then to digital
  • Phone (POTS – plain old telephone service)
  • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
    • Allow network signals to pass over phone lines
  • Cable
network interface card nic
Network Interface Card (NIC)
  • Supports a protocol
  • Convert parallel digitals signal to serial analog signal and serial analog signal to parallel digital signals
  • Mostly built in now
  • Has LEDs to show if the line is live and transmitting data
  • Transceiver – converting signals from, say 100Base0TX to 100Base0FX
bridge
Bridge
  • Connect similar network segment together
  • Break collision domains
  • Designed for the bus topology
switch
Switch
  • Point to point communication
  • Segment the message in Switch-hub setting – function like a bridge
  • Know MAC address
wireless access point ap
Wireless Access Point (AP)
  • Support 802.11a/b/g/n
understanding routing
Understanding Routing
  • A router is a system connected to two or more networks that forwards packets from one network to another.
  • Routers operate at the network layer, sometimes referred as layer 3, of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model.
  • Routers can connect networks running different data-link layer protocols and different network media.
  • Large internetworks often have redundant routers, providing multiple routes to a destination.
  • Routers select the most efficient route to each destination.
router products
Router Products
  • The Microsoft Windows 2000~2012, Microsoft Windows NT, and Novell NetWare operating systems include routing capability.
  • A stand-alone router is a hardware device that is essentially a special-purpose computer (with CPU, RAM, HD, and NICs).
  • More in later chapters
firewall
Firewall
  • Can be software or hardware
  • It separates Intranet from Internet
slide15
DHCP
  • Addresses the shortcomings of RARP and BOOTP (two other protocols)
  • Dynamically allocates IP addresses from a pool
  • Reclaims unused addresses
  • Prevents IP address duplication
dhcp address allocation types
DHCP Address Allocation Types
  • Manual allocation
    • Static IP address, DHCP is only good for lookups
  • Automatic allocation
    • Same IP address, assigned by DHCP server
  • Dynamic allocation
    • (Next page)
dynamic allocation
Dynamic Allocation
  • The DHCP server leases to the client an IP address chosen from a pool.
  • The client must periodically renew the lease address.
  • Unrenewed lease addresses are returned to the pool.
  • Dynamic allocation allows you to add, remove, and relocate computers.
the ip address leasing process
The IP Address Leasing Process
  • The address assignment process is the same for all of the allocation methods.
    • Clients using manual or automatic allocation receive no further communication after the address assignment.
    • Clients using dynamic allocation lease IP addresses for a time interval specified by the server.
  • The client must renew the lease on a regular basis to continue using it.
  • DHCP address leases are typically measured in days.
    • If addresses are in short supply, a shorter lease interval is warranted.
    • If computers are rarely moved to other subnets, longer lease intervals reduce the DHCP traffic.
others
Others
  • Multilayer Switch – level 3 switch
  • Content Switch/Web Switch
    • Operate at even higher level than 3
    • Rout to different web server based on requesting content
  • Intrusion Detection or Prevention System
    • Really?
    • Firmware version of software
  • Load Balancer
  • DNS Server (Domain Name Service)
    • Convert IP address to domain name back
  • Proxy Server
useful url
Useful URL
  • http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/