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Classical Strategists III Jomini. 8801, Lesson 5. Lesson 5: Jomini. Educational Objectives Describe Jomini’s theories and approach Understand his legacy Explain Jomini’s view on politics and war Compare & contrast Clausewitz and Jomini. Who was Jomini?. Swiss Staff officer

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lesson 5 jomini
Lesson 5: Jomini
  • Educational Objectives
    • Describe Jomini’s theories and approach
    • Understand his legacy
    • Explain Jomini’s view on politics and war
    • Compare & contrast Clausewitz and Jomini
who was jomini
Who was Jomini?
  • Swiss
  • Staff officer
  • French and Russian armies
  • A contemporary of Clausewitz
jomini sought to
Jomini sought to
  • Explain the nature of war
  • Control upheavals
  • Educate officers
  • Provide solutions to military problems
  • Reduce war to a set of principles
jomini and war
Jomini and War
  • War as a scientific study
  • Concepts
  • Premise
jomini and the study of war
Jomini and the Study of War
  • Goal
  • Approach
  • General Principles

X AB Y

precis de l art de la guerre 1838
Precis de l’Art de la Guerre (1838)
  • Nine reasons for war
  • Nine forms of war
  • Six parts of war
  • Four basic principles of war
  • Major exception
precis de l art de la guerre
Precis de l’Art de la Guerre
  • Wars of opinion
  • The decisive point
  • Technology
the fundamental questions of military theorists
The Fundamental Questions of Military Theorists
  • Influence of historical setting?
  • Use of historical analysis?
  • What are his ideas?
  • Build on or react to previous theorists?
  • Affect on later theorists and practitioners of war?
historical setting
Historical Setting
  • Post Napoleonic Europe
  • Jomini’s purpose
  • Why had Napoleon been so successful?
    • Jomini: A recurrent phenomenon
us of historical analysis
Us of Historical Analysis
  • Jomini’s Method
    • History
    • The role of Theory
what are his ideas about
What are his ideas about
  • The fundamentals of strategy
    • Strategy:
      • The science of directing greater part of forces to the most important point…
        • Timeless principles
    • Tactics:
      • The physical application of forces at the decisive point
        • Changed as material means evolved
the fundamentals of strategy
The fundamentals of strategy
  • Timeless principles
  • Object
  • Choices
ideas about
Ideas about
  • Civil-military relations
    • Political and military relationship
ideas about1
Ideas about
  • Importance of material and moral factors
    • An effective army
      • Necessary elements
    • Generalship
generalship
Generalship
  • The “great man “ theory
    • Essential qualities
  • Sources
  • Political generals
ideas about2
Ideas about
  • Ability of an individual to influence events
ideas about3
Ideas about
  • Relationship between
    • Offense
      • Strategically stronger than the defense
      • Tactically equal to the defensive
      • Preferred the strategic turning movement
    • and defense
ideas about4
Ideas about
  • Chance in war
how do his ideas build on or react against the ideas of previous theorists
How do his ideas build on or react against the ideas of previous theorists?
  • Henry Lloyd
  • Georg Fredrich Tempelhof
  • Clausewitz
to what degree did his ideas affect later theorists and practitioners of war
To what degree did his ideas affect later theorists and practitioners of war?
  • Dennis Hart Mahan
  • Naval Warfare
    • Alfred Thayer Mahan
  • Air Warfare
    • Julio Douhet
  • Nuclear Warfare
    • Bernard Brodie
  • U.S. Principles of War
jomini and his era
Admirers

European conservatives

Critics

Modern theorists

Jomini and his Era
jomini
Jomini
  • Acceptance
  • Contribution
  • Decline
issues for consideration
Issues for Consideration
  • Jomini’s Principles
  • Political control
  • Views on Strategy
  • Clausewitz and Jomini
  • Jomini’s influence
jomini s principles
Jomini’s Principles
  • Four basic principles of war
  • Nations go to war for nine reasons
  • War can assume nine forms
  • War consists of six parts
  • Applicability today?
political control
Political control
  • Subordination of military
  • Similarity to
    • Sun Tzu?
    • Clausewitz?
views on strategy
Views on Strategy
  • Isolate strategy from its context
  • His interpretation of Napoleon’s success
clausewitz and jomini
Clausewitz and Jomini
  • Theories of war
  • Relationship to policy
  • Psychological aspects
  • Aims of strategic action
  • Role of technology
  • The decisive battle
clausewitz and jomini1
Army won until 1813

War was easy

View was optimistic and rational

War was subject to unchanging rules

Heroic

Army lost until 1813

War was hard

View was skeptical, brooding in approach, but rational

War was balky, irrational, threatening to escape control

Tragic.

Clausewitz and Jomini
clausewitz and jomini2
Clausewitz and Jomini
  • Both
    • Outsiders
    • Used the past to create a theory for the future
    • Different purposes
    • Different beliefs
jomini s influence
Jomini’s Influence
  • On the world’s armies
  • On later theorists
  • On the U.S. Armed Forces
    • Civil War
    • Sea power and Mahan
    • Military doctrine
      • 9 Principles of War (Moose Muss)
issues for consideration1
Issues for Consideration
  • Jomini’s Principles
  • Political control
  • Views on Strategy
  • Clausewitz and Jomini
  • Jomini’s influence
principles of war for the 21 st century
Objective and Offensive

Initiative

Unity of command

Unity of effort

Mass: focus

Economic of force

Economy of effort

Maneuver

Orchestration

Simplicity

Clarity

Surprise

Security

Principles of war for the 21st Century
points to remember
Points to remember
  • Lesson 5: Classical Theorists III
    • Overarching theme
    • Civil-Military Relationship
    • Agreement with Clausewitz