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Chapter 12. Assessment of Reading. Assessment of Reading. Statistics indicate that as many as 40 percent of students cannot read at a basic level and that the percentage is even higher children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Many factors may be involved in reading failure.

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Assessment of Reading


Assessment of reading
Assessment of Reading

  • Statistics indicate that as many as 40 percent of students cannot read at a basic level and that the percentage is even higher children from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

  • Many factors may be involved in reading failure.

  • There is an emphasis on reading assessment and instruction.

  • Reading involves the components of recognition, analysis, and comprehension.

  • Reading assessment involves both word recognition and reading comprehension.


Reading assessment
Reading Assessment

  • The evaluation of the reading process can be done either informally or formally.

  • One advantage of informal reading assessment is that it provides more of an opportunity to understand the reading process rather than simply to analyze the reading product.

  • There are a number of helpful informal assessment procedures.

  • There has been significant interest in identifying young children who are at risk for reading failure.

  • A number of instruments are available that measure emerging reading skills.

  • These tests can be either norm referenced or criterion referenced.


Reading assessment1
Reading Assessment

  • Those instruments considered more formal test are usually called diagnostic reading tests.

  • Many of these diagnostic test actually magnify a particular area to determine an individual’s strengths and weaknesses.

  • Another type of formal test is the oral reading test.

  • These instruments provide documentation of the child’s overall reading ability, considering such areas as speed and accuracy.


Informal reading assessment procedures
Informal Reading Assessment Procedures

  • Informal reading assessment procedures should be used by teachers for:

    • Identification of areas for further evaluation or remediation

    • Informal determination of objectives and teaching strategies

    • Development and evaluation of IEPs

      Informal Reading Inventories:

  • Informal reading inventories (IRIs) can be developed by a teacher or publisher to accompany a specific basal reading series.

  • It is usually necessary to select representative passages from various levels of a student’s reading program and generate comprehension questions related to those passages.


Informal reading assessment procedures1
Informal Reading Assessment Procedures

  • Although IRIs differ from one another in format and content, most contain graded word lists and graded reading passages that yield a measure of word recognition and comprehension skills.

  • Some IRIs also include a measure of listening comprehension.

  • The term graded refers to the approximate grade level associated with the passages.

  • Typically, three levels of reading are determined from an IRI.

    • The independent level is the level at which the student can read alone without any help.

    • The instructional level is the teaching level at which the student can read relatively comfortably but finds it challenging.

    • The frustration level is the level at which the student finds the material difficult and frustrating.


Informal reading assessment procedures2
Informal Reading Assessment Procedures

  • There are various criteria for recognition and comprehension.

  • IRIs have certain limitations.

    • IRIs have significant technical deficiencies.

    • The usefulness of the comprehension measures has been questioned.

    • There is a general lack of reliability and validity data for most IRIs and that different IRIs do not necessarily yield similar results when administered to the same student.


Informal reading assessment procedures3
Informal Reading Assessment Procedures

Other Informal Techniques:

  • Cloze Procedure

    • The cloze procedure consists of a reading passage in which certain words are deleted, usually with a fixed ratio approach.

    • The fixed ratio method has been criticized.

    • In the close procedure, the student must read the passage and provide the missing words by analyzing the content and its structure.

    • It measures the reader’s ability to interpret written passages, and it requires the student to use both comprehension skills and knowledge of linguistic structure.

    • The cloze procedure can also be used to evaluate spelling.


Informal reading assessment procedures4
Informal Reading Assessment Procedures

  • Maze Procedure

    • The maze procedure is used frequently to evaluate comprehension in curriculum-based measurement procedures.

    • It is similar to the cloze procedure except that vertically presented choices are given instead of blanks.

  • Retelling

    • Retelling can be used to help determine a student’s comprehension of reading material.

    • It allows the reader to provide a free recall of the information read as opposed to responding to structured questions.

    • Retelling doesn’t bias the reader.

    • An approach that has been used to measure reading comprehension is the think aloud procedure, where the student reads a passage and tells what he or she is thinking about or what might happen next.

    • Several approaches to analyze retellings have been suggested.


Informal reading assessment procedures5
Informal Reading Assessment Procedures

  • Questioning

    • Questioning a student about what he or she has read can be very useful but should be done after the student has had the opportunity to retell.

    • There should be three types of question-answer relationships (QARs)

      • Right There QARs: the answer is explicitly stated in the reading material

      • Think and Search QAR: the student must infer the answer from information presented throughout the material

      • In My Head QARs: the student must use past information, knowledge, and experiences to answer questions for which the answers are not in the material.

  • Reading Diagnosis Sheet

    • This procedure breaks down the reading process into 28 areas.


Informal reading assessment procedures6
Informal Reading Assessment Procedures

  • Error Analysis

    • Oral Reading

      • Analyzing errors made during oral reading and word recognition can provide important information that can be useful in developing instructional plans for students.

      • The first step involves the actual sampling of the oral reading.

      • The second step is to identify possible error patterns and confirm those patterns through retesting.

        • It is important that a consistent coding or notation system and perhaps scoring system be used that allows for greater communication among those who see the error analysis.

      • The third step is to interview the student, which involves asking the student why type of approach to reading he or she is using.

      • The last step involves recording the results of the error analysis.


Informal reading assessment procedures7
Informal Reading Assessment Procedures

  • Reading Comprehension

    • The same four step procedure should be used in evaluating the errors in reading comprehension.

  • Miscue Analysis

    • This is an informal process for assessing oral-reading deficits

    • Miscue analysis yields information on skills in oral reading, comprehension, and word analysis by providing a systematic method for studying the patterns of reading errors.

    • First, an appropriate reading selection is made, the student reads the selection, and the oral reading is audiotaped

    • Next, the student retells the story.

    • Finally, the pattern of errors are studied both qualitatively and quantitatively.


Emergent reading tests
Emergent Reading Tests

  • Emergent reading tests should be used by teachers and diagnostic specialists for screening for at-risk reading problems, and informal determination of objectives and reading strategies.

    Basic Early Assessment of Reading (BEARS)

  • Age/grade level: Kindergarten to grade 3

  • Type of instrument: Criterion referenced

  • Scores yielded: Individual profile report and summary report

  • The BEARS is a series of four criterion-referenced tests that measure the areas of phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and oral reading fluency.


Emergent reading tests1
Emergent Reading Tests

Early Reading Success Indicator (ERSI)

  • Age/grade level: 6 to 10 years/Kindergarten to grade 4

  • Type of instrument: Norm-referenced

  • Scores yielded: Variety of derived scores

  • The ERSI addresses the areas of phonemic awareness, phonological processing, rapid automatic naming, decoding, auditory working memory, and verbal comprehension.

  • The ERSI is used to predict the early reading ability of children using a process model.


Emergent reading tests2
Emergent Reading Tests

Pre-Reading Inventory of Phonological Awareness (PIPA)

  • Age/grade level: 4 to 6 years

  • Type of instrument: Norm-referenced

  • Scores yielded: Percentile ranges

  • The PIPA includes six subtests: Rhyme Awareness, Syllable Segmentation, Alliteration Awareness, Sound Isolation, Sound Segmentation, and Letter-Sound Knowledge

  • It focuses on phonological skills that are used to identify children at risk for reading failure.


Diagnostic reading tests
Diagnostic Reading Tests

  • Diagnostic reading tests should be used by teachers and diagnostic specialists for:

    • Screening and identification

    • Informal determination of objectives and teaching strategies

    • Documentation of educational need

    • Establishment of IEP goals

      Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test-4 (SDRT4)

    • The SDRT4 is a group-administered and individually administered instrument designed to measure a student’s strengths and weaknesses in reading.

    • It is used with grades 1 to 12


Diagnostic reading tests1
Diagnostic Reading Tests

  • It places special emphasis on low-achieving students

  • The SDRT4 measures four major components of reading: vocabulary, phonetic analysis, comprehension, and scanning

  • It has six levels, for different age ranges

    • Red Level: middle of grade 1- middle of grade 2

    • Orange Level: middle of grade 2- middle of grade 3

    • Green Level: middle of grade 3 to idle of grade 4, low-achieving grade 5

    • Purple Level: grades 4.5-6.5

    • Brown Level: grades 6.5 to 8.9, low achieving high-school students

    • Blue Level: grades 9 to 12


Diagnostic reading tests2
Diagnostic Reading Tests

  • Description:

    • Red Level: Consonants, Vowels, Word Reading, Listening Vocabulary, Sentences, Riddles, Cloze, Paragraphs with Questions

    • Orange Level: Consonants, Vowels, Listening Vocabulary, Reading Vocabulary, Cloze, Paragraphs with Questions

    • Green Level: Consonants, Vowels, Listening Vocabulary, Reading Vocabulary, Paragraphs with Questions

    • Purple, Brown, and Blue Levels: Reading Vocabulary, Paragraphs with Questions, Scanning

  • Interpretation of Results:

    • The SDRT4 can be either hand scores or computer scored.

    • Scores include: norm-referenced scores, percentile ranks, stanines, grade equivalents, and scaled scores.

    • There are also progress indicators that document whether a student has demonstrated competence in various reading skills.


Diagnostic reading tests3
Diagnostic Reading Tests

  • Technical Characteristics:

    • Normative Sample

      • A nationally stratified sample of approximately 60,000 was used

    • Reliability

      • Internal reliability coefficients were generally above .80

      • Alternate-form reliability coefficients ranged from .62 to .88

    • Validity

      • Construct and criterion-related data are presented in the manual that show high coefficients with the previous edition of the SDRT.

  • Review of Relevant Research:

    • No relevant research literature was located for the SDRT4 or any of the previous editions.


Diagnostic reading tests4
Diagnostic Reading Tests

Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised/Normative Update (WRMT-R)

  • The WRMT-R includes six individually administered tests and a two-part supplementary checklist designed for individuals ages 5 to 75+

  • There are two different forms: Form G contains all six tests and the supplementary checklist, and Form H contains only four tests.

  • Description:

    • Visual-Auditory Learning (Form G only)

    • Letter Identification (Form G only)

    • Word Identification

    • Word Attack

    • Word Comprehension

    • Passage Comprehension

    • Supplementary Letter Checklist (Form G only)


Diagnostic reading tests5
Diagnostic Reading Tests

  • Interpretation of Results:

    • Age equivalents, grade equivalents, percentile ranks, and standard scores are available.

    • Scoring of the WRMT-R is rather cumbersome.

  • Technical Characteristics:

    • Normative Sample

      • The total sample was over 3,000 individuals.

    • Reliability

      • Split-half coefficients were above .90 for all subtests and clusters

    • Validity

      • Concurrent validity coefficients ranged from .25 to .91


Diagnostic reading tests6
Diagnostic Reading Tests

  • Review of Relevant Research:

    • Relatively little research on the WRMT-R was found

    • The studies indicate that it is a widely used test but that its results might be different from those of other reading tests.

    • Reviews of the WRMT-R are mixed.


Other diagnostic reading tests
Other Diagnostic Reading Tests

Gray Diagnostic Reading Test-Second Edition (GDRT-II)

  • Age level: 6 to 13 years

  • Administration: Individual

  • Good reliability, adequate validity

  • Scores yielded: Standard scores, percentile ranks, age equivalents, grade equivalents, and a descriptive rating

  • There are two alternate forms of the GDRT-II that can be used to evaluate specific reading strengths and weaknesses.

  • The four core subtests are Letter/Word Identification, Phonetic Analysis, Reading Vocabulary, and Meaningful Vocabulary.


Other diagnostic reading tests1
Other Diagnostic Reading Tests

Test of Reading Comprehension-3 (TORC-3)

  • Age level: 7 to 18 years

  • Administration: Individual (small group is possible)

  • Adequate standardization, good reliability, questionable validity

  • Scores yielded: Scaled scores, percentile ranks, Reading Comprehension Quotient

  • The TORC-3 is theoretically a measure of silent reading comprehension.

  • Only a small part focuses on traditional comprehension measures.

  • Most of the test is concerned with vocabulary and syntax.


Other diagnostic reading tests2
Other Diagnostic Reading Tests

WJ III Diagnostic Reading Battery (WJ III DRB)

  • Age level: 2 to 90+

  • Administration: Individual

  • Good standardization, good reliability, good validity

  • Scores yielded: Age and grade equivalents, percentiles, standard scores, descriptive reading levels

  • The WJ III DRB is a repackaging of ten subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson-III.

  • The WJ III DRB includes measure of the five areas identified in Reading First, suggesting it has a strong pre-reading component.


Oral reading tests
Oral Reading Tests

  • Oral reading tests should be used by teachers and diagnostic specialists for:

    • Screening and identification

    • Informal determination of objectives and teaching strategies

    • Documentation of educational need

    • Establishment of IEP goals

  • Oral reading tests measure a student’s rate and accuracy of reading, and sometimes the comprehension of orally read material.

  • Oral reading tests allow for error analysis


Oral reading tests1
Oral Reading Tests

Gray Oral Reading Test-4 (GORT-4)

  • Age level: 6 to 18

  • Alternate forms: 2 forms

  • Normed on over 1,600 students from 18 states.

  • There is evidence for content, criterion-related, and construct validity, along with alternate form and internal reliability.

  • Areas measured: Rate and Accuracy, combined to form a Fluency score.

  • Types of scores: Standard scores, percentile ranks, grade equivalents, miscue analysis

  • The error analysis yields the most important information, although an examiner with a strong diagnostic reading background would get the most usable information from the test.


Oral reading tests2
Oral Reading Tests

Gilmore Oral Reading Test

  • Age level: grades 1 to 8

  • Alternate forms: 2 forms, C and D

  • Normed on over 2,200 children

  • Alternate form reliability coefficients were moderate at best; no validity data

  • Areas measured: Accuracy, comprehension, and reading rate

  • Types of scores: Performance ratings and grade scores

  • The informal use is the primary advantage of this instrument

  • Normative use is discouraged.


Chapter 13

Chapter 13

Assessment of Mathematics


Assessment of mathematics
Assessment of Mathematics

  • Less attention is given to the assessment of mathematics than of reading, but an evaluation of mathematics should be included when conducting a comprehensive basic skills assessment

  • Mathematics assessment usually involves the areas of mathematical concepts, computation, application, and problem solving.

    • Mathematical concepts focuses on basic information, such as numeration and number concepts.

    • Computation involves such areas as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

    • Application includes such areas as measurement skills, money skills, and time concepts.

    • Problem solving involves the ability to determine how to solve a given problem and perform the necessary operations to determine the correct answer.


Assessment of mathematics1
Assessment of Mathematics

  • The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) has published ten specific math standards in 2000 that should be used in the area of mathematics.

    • Standard 1: Numbers and Operations

    • Standard 2: Algebra

    • Standard 3: Geometry

    • Standard 4: Measurement

    • Standard 5: Data Analysis and Probability

    • Standard 6: Problem Solving

    • Standard 7: Reasoning and Proof

    • Standard 8: Communication

    • Standard 9: Connections

    • Standard 10: Representations


Assessment of mathematics2
Assessment of Mathematics

  • A number of both informal and formal approaches to mathematics assessment is available.

    • Informal assessment can provide extremely important information to assist in educational decision making

    • Norm-referenced tests for the mathematical areas are sometimes referred to as diagnostic tests.

    • Criterion-references instruments are used to identify more specific information that might be incorporated into an IEP.


Informal assessment
Informal Assessment

  • Informal math assessment should be used by teachers for:

    • Determination and evaluation of teaching strategies

    • Gathering of prereferral information

    • Development and evaluation of IEPs

      Error Analysis

  • Error analyses in mathematics are relatively simple because a written product is available, so the teacher has a tremendous amount of potential information from the students’ routine math work in school.

  • Several in-depth studies have been conducted to determine the typical extent and types of mathematical errors.

  • The pattern of error can yield meaningful information, particularly in determining the teaching strategy that is most appropriate.


Informal assessment1
Informal Assessment

  • A nine-step model for diagnosing and remediating errors in mathematics computation.

    • Step 1: Obtain Samples

    • Step 2: Interview the Student

    • Step 3: Analyze the Errors and Identify Error Patterns

    • Step 4: Select Primary Error Pattern and Show the Precise Error to the Student

    • Step 5: Demonstrate a Correct Computational Procedure as Part of the Corrective Feedback Mechanism

    • Step 6: Select a Corrective Strategy

    • Step 7: Introduce Appropriate Practice

    • Step 8: Identify and Apply Normative Standards

    • Step 9: Evaluate Performance


Informal assessment2
Informal Assessment

Interviews

  • Interviewing a student about math performance is not really a typical interview.

  • The diagnostic math interview can be described as asking the students to talk their way through the arithmetic problems as they are solving them.

  • The student can act like the teacher and show the examiner how to solve specific types of problems.

  • Using interviews will help determine the process the student is using to solve problems.

    Authentic Assessment

  • Another helpful informal approach is authentic assessment.

  • It allows the examiner to determine the strategies used in attempting to solve a problem.


Informal assessment3
Informal Assessment

Other Informal Approaches

  • One unique approach is the use of dynamic assessment to identify the cognitive deficiencies that result in math problems.

  • This leads to an assessment-intervention link

  • One interesting method for evaluating math speed is a computerized test which analyzes the response latencies for a student for all the basic facts in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

  • Word problems can be informally assessed using the “question-answer relationship” (QAR) technique.


Informal assessment4
Informal Assessment

  • Curriculum-based assessment is also helpful, such as the APPLY strategy:

    • Analyze the curriculum

    • Prepare items to meet the objectives

    • Probe frequently

    • Load data using a graph format

    • Yield to results—revisions and decisions


Diagnostic mathematics tests
Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

  • Diagnostic mathematics tests should be used by teachers and diagnostic specialists for:

    • Screening and identification

    • Informal determination of objectives and teaching strategies

    • Documentation of educational need

    • Establishment of IEP goals

      Key Math-Revised/Normative Update (KM-R)

  • Most of the items in the KM-R are presented orally by the examiner, using visual stimuli

  • There are two forms, and the Normative Update extended the norms to kindergarten through grade 12


Diagnostic mathematics tests1
Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

  • Description:

    • The KM-R contains 13 subtests that measure basic concepts, operations, and applications.

    • Basic Concepts: Numeration, Rational Numbers, Geometry

    • Operations: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Mental Computation

    • Applications: Measures, Time and Money, Estimation, Interpreting Data, Problem Solving

  • Interpretation of Results:

    • Four levels of diagnostic information are available: total test, area, subtest, and domain

    • Standard scores, grade and age equivalents, percentile ranks, and stanines are available.


Diagnostic mathematics tests2
Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

  • Technical Characteristics:

    • Normative Sample

      • The total sample was over 3,000 individuals

    • Reliabilty

      • There is adequate reliability for the total score.

    • Validity

      • Few validity data are presented.

  • Review of Relevant Research:

    • Little research was located on the revised version.

    • The KM-R was a substantial improvement over its predecessor.

    • A more extensive revision would have been appropriate for the update.

    • The KM-R is similar to the original Key Math in format.


Diagnostic mathematics tests3
Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

Stanford Diagnostic Mathematics Test-4 (SDMT-4)

  • The SDMT-4 is a group-administered or individually administered instrument designed to measure basic mathematic concepts and skills from grades 1 to 12.

  • It is divided into six levels:

    • Red Level: grades 1.5 to 2.5

    • Orange Level: grades 2.5 to 3.5

    • Green Level: grades 3.5 to 4.5

    • Purple Level: grades 4.5 to 6.5

    • Brown Level: grades 6.5 to 8.9

    • Blue Level: grades 9.0 to 12.9


Diagnostic mathematics tests4
Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

  • Each level contains items that measure a student’s knowledge in Concepts and Applications, and Computation.

  • Interpretation of Results

    • Raw scores can be transformed into percentile ranks, stanines, grade equivalents, and scaled scores.

    • The SDMT-4 offers a progress-indicator score that is a criterion-referenced cutoff point.

  • Technical Characteristics

    • Normative Sample

      • A large, stratified, nationally representative sample of approximately 88,000 was used.


Diagnostic mathematics tests5
Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

  • Reliability

    • Internal consistency coefficients were mostly above .90

    • Alternate form reliability coefficients were generally above .80

    • Interrater reliability was .97 or higher

  • Validity

    • Validity data are generally lacking

  • Review of Relevant Research

    • The SDMT-4 has not been studied.


  • Diagnostic mathematics tests6
    Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

    Test of Mathematical Abilities-2 (TOMA-2)

    • The TOMA-2 includes 5 subtests that provide standardized information about two major skill areas (story problems and computation) and related information about attitude, vocabulary, and the general application of information.

    • It is a norm-referenced test designed for use with students ages 8 to 18

    • It can be either group or individually administered

    • Administration takes approximately one to two hours.


    Diagnostic mathematics tests7
    Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

    • Description

      • Vocabulary

      • Computation

      • General Information

      • Story Problems

      • Attitude toward Math (optional)

    • Interpretation of Results

      • The TOMA-2 provides standard scores, percentiles, and a Total Math Quotient


    Diagnostic mathematics tests8
    Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • The sample included 2,082 students

        • Eleven percent of the sample were students with disabilities

      • Reliability

        • There is good reliability for the composites

      • Validity

        • Criterion-related validity correlations were good.

    • Review of Relevant Research

      • No empirical studies on the TOMA-2 or its predecessor were located.

      • One review concludes that the TOMA-2 is useful in identifying student who are significantly below or above their peers in mathematics and in documenting progress in intervention programs.


    Other diagnostic mathematics tests
    Other Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

    Comprehensive Mathematical Abilities Test (CMAT)

    • Age level: 7 to 18

    • Individually administered

    • Good reliability (composites, good validity

    • Scores yielded: standard scores for subtests and composites

    • The CMAT consists of six score subtests and six supplemental subtests


    Other diagnostic mathematics tests1
    Other Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

    • The Core Composites are Basic Calculation, Mathematical Reasoning, and General Mathematics

    • The Supplemental Composites are Advanced Calculations, Practical Applications, and Overall Mathematic Abilities

    • Raw scores can be compared to both age-based norms and grade-based norms


    Other diagnostic mathematics tests2
    Other Diagnostic Mathematics Tests

    Test of Early Mathematics Ability-Third Edition (TEMA-3)

    • Age level: 3 to 8 years

    • Individually administered

    • Adequate reliability and validity

    • Scores yielded: Standard scores, percentile ranks, age and grade equivalents

    • The TEMA-3 includes 72 items measuring the areas of numbering skills, number-comparison facility, numerical literacy, mastery of number facts, calculation skills, and understanding of concepts.

    • There are two alternative forms of the TEMA-3


    Criterion referenced mathematics instruments
    Criterion-Referenced Mathematics Instruments

    • Criterion-referenced mathematics instruments should be used by teachers for:

      • Identification of areas for further evaluation or remediation

      • Informal determination of objectives and teaching strategies

      • Development and evaluation of IEPs

        Diagnostic Assessment of Computation Skills

    • The Diagnostic Assessment of Computation Skills is an interactive CD-ROM software package designed for elementary, middle, and junior high school students who have specific problems with arithmetic computation skills.


    Criterion referenced mathematics instruments1
    Criterion-Referenced Mathematics Instruments

    • Description

      • Basic Facts

      • Wide-Range Placement

      • Skill Placement

        • Addition of Whole Numbers

        • Subtraction of Whole Numbers

        • Multiplication of Whole Numbers

        • Division of Whole Numbers

        • Conversion of Fractions

        • Addition of Fractions


    Criterion referenced mathematics instruments2
    Criterion-Referenced Mathematics Instruments

    • Subtraction of Fractions

    • Multiplication of Fractions

    • Division of Fractions

    • Addition of Decimals

    • Subtraction of Decimals

    • Multiplication of Decimals

    • Division of Decimals

  • Interpretation of Results

    • The instrument provides specific information on which computational skills the student has mastered.

    • Each of the 144 skill areas are correlated with the grade levels in which they are taught in five separate basal mathematics series.

    • A valuable feature is the inclusion of guidelines to perform an error analysis.


  • Criterion referenced mathematics instruments3
    Criterion-Referenced Mathematics Instruments

    Mathematics Test Builder and Test Banks

    • The Mathematics Test Builder and Test Banks allows the teacher great flexibility in determining the content of the areas to be measured.

    • The Mathematics Test Builder combines word processing, database, and layout capabilities.

    • It allows a teacher to develop questions, store and categorize them, and create tests and worksheets printed in several forms.

    • Mathematics Test Builder can be helpful in developing curriculum-based assessment instruments because it allows the teacher to use his or her own questions in developing the tests.

    • The Test Banks are a series of prepared question files, and there are over 25 separate Test Banks available.

    • There are Test Banks that measure the NCTM Standards.


    Chapter 14

    Chapter 14

    Assessment of Written Expression


    Assessment of written expression
    Assessment of Written Expression

    • The primary function of language is communication.

    • The consensus is that there are five components of written expression:

      • Handwriting is the visible product of written expression

      • Spelling is an important component of the communication process

      • Mechanics refers to the rules of language

      • Usage refers to how the various areas of written language are chosen and combined

      • Ideation involves the ideas related to the writer’s purpose and intent.

    • There are formal and informal techniques for assessing the five components of written expression


    Informal assessment5
    Informal Assessment

    • Informal written expression assessment should be used by teachers and speech and language clinicians for:

      • Screening and identification of written language problems.

      • Informal determination of objectives and teaching strategies

      • Analysis of spontaneous use of written language

    • The evaluation of written language using the student’s actual work products is important.

      • It is possible to evaluate a student’s copied work, written samples taken from dictation, and spontaneous written samples.

      • Portfolio assessment has been suggested as a valuable method for written language skills.

      • Curriculum-based measurement has also been used.


    Informal assessment6
    Informal Assessment

    • Another extremely valuable procedure is error analysis

      • The analysis of written products should focus on the following types of errors: careless, excessive usage, verbs, nouns, pronouns, punctuation, capitalization, and paragraphs.

      • Much of the analysis should focus on the T-unit, an independent clause including any dependent clauses attached to or embedded in it.

      • Other areas of written language have also been recommended for error analysis, such as fluency, content, convention, syntax, vocabulary, and style.

    • It is possible that the informal assessment of written expression could also directly address the five components of handwriting, spelling, mechanics, usage, and ideation.

    • The information obtained from a careful look at error types suggests certain remedial strategies.


    Informal assessment7
    Informal Assessment

    • A five-step process for conducting a spelling error analysis:

      • Obtain a Sample

      • Interview the Student

      • Analyze and Classify the Errors

      • Select a Corrective Strategy

      • Implement Strategy and Evaluate Its Effect


    Written expression and language tests
    Written Expression and Language Tests

    • Tests of written expression and language should be used by teachers and diagnostic specialists for:

      • Screening and identification

      • Informal determination of objectives and teaching strategies

      • Documentation of educational need

      • Establishment of IEP goals


    Written expression and language tests1
    Written Expression and Language Tests

    Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS; Written Expression Scale)

    • The written component of the OWLS can be used by itself or combined with the Oral Scales.

    • The Written Expression scale is designed for individuals ages 5 to 21.

    • It measures the individual’s ability to communicate using written linguistic forms.

    • The test measures written expression in three areas: Conventions, Linguistics, and Content.

    • Interpretation of Results

      • There are scoring rules that are applied to each item and are based on the intent of the item.

      • Raw scores can be converted to standard scores, age equivalents, grade equivalents, stanines, normal curve equivalents, and percentiles.


    Written expression and language tests2
    Written Expression and Language Tests

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • A total of 1,373 individuals were included in the standardization of the Written Expression Scale.

      • Reliability

        • The mean internal reliability coefficient was .87

        • The mean test-retest coefficient was .88

        • The mean interrater reliability coefficient was .95

      • Validity

        • Validity data with other measures of written expression are necessary.

    • Review of Relevant Research

      • No research literature on the Written Expression scale of the OWLS was located


    Written expression and language tests3
    Written Expression and Language Tests

    Test of Written Expression (TOWE)

    • The TOWE is an individually administered instrument that measures the six areas of ideation, semantics, syntax, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.

    • It is designed for use with students from ages 6 ½ to 14 and 11 months.

    • The test can be used to identify students who have writing problems and to discover their writing strengths and weaknesses.

    • Description of Items Section

      • Ideation, Semantics, Syntax, Capitalization, Punctuation, Spelling

    • Description of Essay Section

      • The student must write an essay based on a story in which the beginning is provided.


    Written expression and language tests4
    Written Expression and Language Tests

    • Interpretation of Results

      • Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents.

      • An overall descriptive rating for the student’s performance on each section is also available.

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • The TOWE was standardized on 1,355 students from 20 states.

      • Reliability

        • Reliability coefficients were good

      • Validity

        • Validity coefficients are adequate.

    • Review of Relevant Research

      • No empirical studies on the TOWE were found.


    Written expression and language tests5
    Written Expression and Language Tests

    Test of Written Language-3 (TOWL-3)

    • The TOWL-3 was developed to identify students who have problems with written expression, to indicate strengths and weaknesses in written language skills, to document progress, and to aid in research studies related to the writing process.

    • It is designed for use with students ages 7 to 17

    • Written language is divided into three components: conventional, linguistic, and cognitive.

    • There are two formats of eliciting writing samples: contrived and spontaneous.


    Written expression and language tests6
    Written Expression and Language Tests

    • Description:

      • There are 8 subtests.

      • Contrived Subtests: Vocabulary, Spelling, Style, Logical Sentences, and Sentence Combining

      • Spontaneous Subtests: Contextual Conventions, Contextual Language, Story Construction

    • Interpretation of Results:

      • The TOWL-3 includes standard scores and percentile ranks for three composites: Contrived Writing, Spontaneous Writing, Overall Written Language.


    Written expression and language tests7
    Written Expression and Language Tests

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • Approximately 2,200 subjects from 19 states were included in the sample.

      • Reliability

        • There is adequate reliability for the Composites.

      • Validity

        • Validity coefficients are low.

    • Review of Relevant Research

      • One study suggests the need to investigate a school district’s writing curriculum before using the TOWL-3.

      • More research that investigates the constructs and the psychological properties of the TOWL-3 needs to be conducted.


    Additional written language instruments
    Additional Written Language Instruments

    • There are other instruments that directly measure written expression through the use of writing samples and other procedures.

      Mather-Woodcock Group Writing Tests

    • Age level: Grade 2 to college

    • Group administration

    • Good standardization, adequate reliability and validity.

    • Yields standard scores, percentiles, proficiency levels.

    • There are three forms of the test: Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced.

    • Each form has four subtests: Dictation Spelling, Writing Samples, Editing, and Writing Fluency.


    Additional written language instruments1
    Additional Written Language Instruments

    Test of Early Written Language-2 (TEWL-2)

    • Age level: 3 to 10 years

    • Individual administration

    • Adequate standardization, reliability, and validity

    • Yields standard scores, percentiles, age equivalents, normal curve equivalents

    • The TEWL-2 focuses on the emerging written language skills of young children.

    • It measures the areas of basic writing and contextual writing.


    Additional written language instruments2
    Additional Written Language Instruments

    Test of Handwritten Skills:

    • Age level: 5 to 11 years

    • Individual or small groups administration

    • Yields standard scores, scaled scores, percentiles, and stanines

    • The Test of Handwriting Skills measures both manuscript and cursive writing and includes both lower-case and upper-case forms.

    • The test takes approximately 30 minutes to administer


    Additional written language instruments3
    Additional Written Language Instruments

    Test of Written English (TWE)

    • Age level: grades 1 to 6

    • Group or individual administration

    • It is a criterion-referenced instrument

    • Yields approximate grade-level placement.

    • The TWE measures four areas: Capitalization, Punctuation, Written Expression, and Paragraph Writing.


    Additional written language instruments4
    Additional Written Language Instruments

    Writing Process Test (WPT)

    • Age level: grades 2 to 12

    • Individual administration

    • Adequate reliability and validity

    • Yields standard scores and percentile ranks

    • The WPT is a direct measure of writing that requires the student to plan and compose an article for a specific audience.

    • One unique feature is the comparison of ratings from the teacher and the student with guidelines for identifying significant discrepancies.


    Additional written language instruments5
    Additional Written Language Instruments

    Written Language Assessment (WLA)

    • Age level: 8 to 18 and older

    • Individual or group administration

    • Adequate standardization, limited reliability for subtests, adequate reliability for total score, adequate validity

    • The WLA offers a direct measurement of written language through the use of writing samples.

    • The writing samples are classified according to expressive, instructive, and creative writing.

    • It uses real writing tasks in a natural setting.


    Diagnostic spelling tests
    Diagnostic Spelling Tests

    • Diagnostic spelling tests should be used by teachers for:

      • Identification of areas for further evaluation or remediation

      • Informal determination of objectives and teaching strategies

      • Development and evaluation of IEPs

        Test of Written Spelling-4 (TWS-4)

    • The TWS-4 is an individually administered or group-administered test designed to pinpoint a child’s written spelling level and to specify the types of words with which a child is having problems.

    • It is designed for use with students from grades 1 to 12.


    Diagnostic spelling tests1
    Diagnostic Spelling Tests

    • Description

      • The TWS-4 includes 50 spelling words in increasing level of difficulty

      • There are two alternate forms

      • The words were cross-referenced to six basal spelling series with the results reported in the manual.

    • Interpretation of Results

      • The TWS-4 yields a standard score, a percentile rank, a spelling age, and a grade equivalent for the total score.

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • The sample included almost 5,000 individuals from 23 states

        • The norms are over 15 years old for the most part


    Diagnostic spelling tests2
    Diagnostic Spelling Tests

    • Reliability

      • Internal consistency was good

      • Alternate-form reliability coefficients and test-retest coefficients were high.

    • Validity

      • There is evidence to support the test’s content validity

      • There is limited validity, and more data is needed

  • Review of Relevant Research

    • No empirical studies on the TWS-4 were located

    • Reviews noted that the test was an excellent screening instrument, well constructed, and easily administered.


  • Diagnostic spelling tests3
    Diagnostic Spelling Tests

    SuperSpell Assessment Disk

    • SuperSpell is a computerized, comprehensive spelling program used with students from kindergarted through grade 6

    • It includes an interactive CD-ROM which involves a series of spelling games.

    • There is also an interactive assessment CD-ROM software package.

    • Description

      • The SuperSpell Assessment Disk includes four separate tests

      • The tests are criterion referenced

      • Placement Test

        • This is used to determine the most appropriate diagnostic test for the student to take.

      • 3 Diagnostic Tests


    Diagnostic spelling tests4
    Diagnostic Spelling Tests

    • Interpretation of Results

      • For each test the results can be printed and can be used to conduct an error analysis

      • Student performance on each spelling skill is described as competent, partially established, or not established.

      • The type of results from the test provide a teacher with valuable information as well as a link with an instructional program to remediate spelling deficits.


    Part v

    Part V

    Special Assessment Considerations


    Special assessment considerations
    Special Assessment Considerations

    • Comprehensive assessment systems are norm-referenced test batteries that include more than one component, thus providing measures in more than one area or multiple measures in the same area.

    • Two other issues are assessments of specific populations, which are early childhood assessment and vocational/transitional assessment.


    Chapter 15

    Chapter 15

    Comprehensive Assessment Systems


    Comprehensive assessment systems
    Comprehensive Assessment Systems

    • Some instruments include a number of components, thus measuring more than one area, or providing different measures of the same area.

    • These instruments can better be described as assessment systems

    • Cognitive/achievement systems provide normative scores in a number of different areas using the same standardization sample.

    • Behavior assessment systems have several components that allow for a more comprehensive and ecological evaluation of a student’s behavior


    Cognitive achievement assessment systems
    Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems

    • Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems should be used by school psychologists, teachers, and diagnosticians for decisions about eligibility and program placement, and establishment of IEP goals.

      The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II)

    • The KABC-III is designed for use with children ages 3 to 18.

    • Description:

      • Sequential Processing: Number Recall (4-18), Word Order (3-18)

      • Simultaneous Processing: Conceptual Thinking (3-6), Block Counting (13-18), Rover (4-18), Triangles (3-12)

      • Learning: Atlantis (3-18), Rebus (4-18)

      • Planning: Pattern Reasoning (4-18), Story Completion (7-18)

      • Knowledge: Riddles (7-18), Verbal Knowledge (7-18), Expressive Vocabulary (3-6)


    Cognitive achievement assessment systems1
    Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems

    • Interpretation of Results

      • Scores can be interpreted using both the Luria model and the CHC model.

      • A Nonverbal Index (NVI) can be determined.

      • Standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents are available.

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • The KABC-II was normed on 3,025 individuals ages 3 to 18.

      • Reliability

        • There was good reliability


    Cognitive achievement assessment systems2
    Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems

    • Validity

      • Evidence of construct validity is provided through a series of tables, depicting factor analysis data and intercorrelations of the global scales, scales, and subtests.

      • Criterion-related validity was determined by correlating the KABC-II scores with a number of cognitive measures.

      • Validity was adequate

  • Review of Relevant Research

    • No research was located on the KABC-II because of its recency.


  • Cognitive achievement assessment systems3
    Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems

    Woodcock-Johnson-III (WJ-III)

    • The WJ-III is a wide-ranging set of individually administered tests designed to measure general intellectual ability, specific cognitive abilities, oral language, and academic achievement.

    • There are separate Cognitive and Achievement Batteries.

    • It can be used to diagnose learning disabilities, plan educational programs, determine performance discrepancies, and monitor progress.

    • Norms are available for individuals ages 2 to 90+


    Cognitive achievement assessment systems4
    Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems

    • Description

      • Standard Cognitive Battery

        • Comprehension-Knowledge (Verbal Comprehension)

        • Long-Term Retrieval (Visual-Auditory Learning, Visual-Auditory Learning-Delayed)

        • Visual-Spatial Thinking (Spatial Relations)

        • Auditory Processing (Sound Blending, Incomplete Words)

        • Fluid Reasoning (Concept Formation)

        • Processing Speed (Visual Matching)

        • Short-Term Memory (Numbers Reversed, Auditory Working Memory)


    Cognitive achievement assessment systems5
    Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems

    • Extended Battery

      • Comprehension-Knowledge (General Information)

      • Long-Term Retrieval (Retrieval Fluency)

      • Visual-Spatial Thinking (Picture Recognition, Planning)

      • Auditory Processing (Auditory Attention)

      • Fluid Reasoning (Analysis-Synthesis, Planning)

      • Processing Speed (Decision Speed, Rapid Picture Naming, Pair Cancellation)

      • Short-Term Memory (Memory for Words)


    Cognitive achievement assessment systems6
    Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems

    • Standard Achievement Battery

      • Reading (Letter Word Identification, Reading Fluency, Passage Comprehension)

      • Written Language (Spelling, Writing Fluency, Writing Samples)

      • Mathematics (Calculation, Math Fluency, Applied Problems)

      • Oral Language (Study Recall, Understanding Directions)

    • Extended Achievement Battery

      • Reading (Word Attack, Reading Vocabulary)

      • Written Language (Editing)

      • Mathematics (Quantitative Concepts)

      • Oral Language (Picture Vocabulary, Oral Comprehension)

      • Academic Knowledge

      • Supplemental (Story Recall—Delayed, Punctuation and Capitalization, Spelling of Sounds, Sound Awareness)


    Cognitive achievement assessment systems7
    Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems

    • Interpretation of Results

      • The WJ-III includes computer software, Compuscore and Profiles Program, that eliminates hand scoring.

      • Compuscore provides standard scores, percentile ranks, age equivalents, grade equivalents, instructional range bands, and Relative Mastery Indexes (RMI)

      • There are various options to determine ability-achievement discrepancies.

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • The standardization sample was 8,818 individuals


    Cognitive achievement assessment systems8
    Cognitive/Achievement Assessment Systems

    • Reliability

      • The reliability coefficients were adequate.

    • Validity

      • The authors provide a significant amount of information supporting the content validity of the items chosen

      • Evidence for construct validity was provided through the use of confirmatory factory analyses

      • Criterion-related validity studies were conducted using a variety of criterion measures for both the Cognitive and Achievement Batteries.

  • Review of Relevant Research

    • Little research was located on the WJ-III


  • Behavior assessment systems
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    • Behavior assessment systems should be used by teachers, school psychologists, and parent input for:

      • Screening and identification

      • Decisions about eligibility and program placement

      • Establishment of IEP goals

        Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA)

    • The ASEBA is an integrated set of forms included the Child Behavior Checklists designed for parent use.

    • Other components include measures of teacher ratings, direct observation, interviews, and self-report.

    • The behavior checklists have been extended to include individuals from ages 1 ½ to 30


    Behavior assessment systems1
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    • Description

      • Child Behavior Checklist and Young Adult Behavior Checklists

        • Administered to parents to determine their child’s social competency and problem behaviors.

        • There are separate profiles for boys and girls

      • Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (1 ½-5) and Teacher Report Form (5-18)

      • Direct Observation Form

        • Designed for ages 5 to 14

      • Youth Self-Report and Young Adult Self-Report

        • The items are written to reflect the first-person

      • Semistructured Clinical Interview for Children and Adolescents (SCICA)

        • It is designed for experienced interviewers working with individuals ages 6 to 18.


    Behavior assessment systems2
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    • Interpretation of Results

      • Results of the CBCL, YABCL, and other components are interpreted through the use of the various profiles.

      • A software program generates a visual graph.

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • The CBCL was normed on 2,368 children, and parent ratings of 4,455 children

        • The YABCL used 1,074 parents

      • Reliability

        • There is generally good reliability

      • Validity

        • There are moderate correlations with other behavior-rating scales


    Behavior assessment systems3
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    • Review of Relevant Research

      • The ASEBA has been widely researched

      • The majority of published research has focused on establishing the validity and reliability of its various components.

      • In general, the technical characteristics have been favorable.

      • There are also many articles that describe and review the various components of the ASEBA.


    Behavior assessment systems4
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2)

    • The BASC-2 is a multidimensional approach for evaluating the behavior of individuals ages 2 to 25.

    • It measures many different aspects of behavior and personality.

    • Description

      • Teacher Rating Scales (TRS)

        • Composites: Externalizing Problems, School Problems, Internalizing Problems, Behavior Symptoms Index, Adaptive Skills

      • Parent Rating Scales (PRS)

        • Is similar to the TRS


    Behavior assessment systems5
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    • Self-Report of Personality (SRP)

      • It uses both a four-point scale and a true-false format

      • Composites: School Problems, Internalizing Problems, Inattention/Hyperactivity, Personal Adjustment

    • Structured Developmental History (SDH)

      • This allows for an extensive history of developmental and medical factors that could have an effect on the child’s current behavior

    • Student Observation System (SOS)

      • This allows for the direct observation of a student in a classroom setting, and uses momentary time sampling.


    Behavior assessment systems6
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    • Interpretation of Results

      • The TRS and PRS provide T-scores and percentile ranks.

      • The SRP provides T-scores and percentile ranks, and includes 3 types of validity scores.

      • Using the BASC-2 Assist Plus software it is possible to print out an interpretation of several “content scales.”

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • The general norms included a total of more than 13,000 for the TRS, PRS, and SRP.

        • The clinical norms of over 5,000 individuals were made up of children ages 4 to 18, whose parents had identified them as having one or more emotional, behavioral, or physical problems.


    Behavior assessment systems7
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    • Reliability

      • Reliability varies depending on the component.

    • Validity

      • Content validity was maximized during test development

      • Construct validity was reported using intercorrelations of the scales and factor analysis.

      • Criterion-related validity coefficients vary considerably, with the majority in the low to moderate range.

  • Review of Relevant Research

    • No literature was located because of the recency of publication.

    • Research on the BASC may have relevance to the BASC-2, since there are similarities between the two versions.


  • Behavior assessment systems8
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    Social Skills Rating System (SSRS)

    • The SSRS is a multirater assessment battery of social behaviors that can affect teacher-student relations, peer acceptance, and academic performance.

    • The SSRS focuses on positive behaviors as opposed to maladaptive behaviors.

    • Description

      • There are three forms: teacher, parent, and student

      • Three different age levels for the Teacher and Parent Forms: preschool, kindergarten to sixth grade, and seventh to twelfth grade.

      • There are two age levels for the Student Rating Form: grades 3 to 6, and grades 7 to 12

      • Three specific areas are measured: social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence


    Behavior assessment systems9
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    • Interpretation of Results

      • Percentile ranks, standard scores, and the behavior level can be determined.

      • Scores can be used to target intervention goals.

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • The Student Rating Form was standardized using more than 4,000 children

        • The Teacher Rating Scale included 259 teacher ratings of 1,355 children

        • The Parent Form used about 1,000 parents


    Behavior assessment systems10
    Behavior Assessment Systems

    • Reliability

      • Reliability coefficients were adequate.

    • Validity

      • The authors provide an argument for the assurance of content and social validity and provide criterion-related validity coefficients

      • Validity coefficients were adequate.

  • Review of Recent Research

    • Research on the SSRS generally supports its use as a valid measure of social skills.

    • There is some evidence that mothers and fathers and parents and teachers rate the same child’s social skills differently on the SSRS.


  • Chapter 16

    Chapter 16

    Early Childhood Assessment


    Early childhood assessment
    Early Childhood Assessment

    • Interest in the area of early childhood assessment has increased over the past two decades.

    • This popularity is partly due to legislation that provided increased awareness of, and mandated increased responsibility for, the educational needs of children from birth to 5 years old.


    Important components of early childhood assessments
    Important Components of Early Childhood Assessments

    • Young children should be evaluated using a team approach.

    • Professionals should work together to coordinate assessment results into the most viable educational plan.

    • The teacher should be an active member of the team.

    • The instruments used for infants and toddlers can be primarily considered developmental.

    • Those for preschool children can be considered developmental, screening, or preacademic.


    Important components of early childhood assessments1
    Important Components of Early Childhood Assessments

    • Specific guidelines should be followed when preschool children are evaluated:

      • Reevaluations and continuous monitoring are extremely important.

      • It is necessary to address environmental variables that have a significant influence.

      • Any decision should be based on multiple scores and multiple sources.

      • Tests should match the philosophy and goals of the educational program in which a child might be placed.

      • There should be sensitivity to individual diversity.

    • Other guidelines relate to the testing session itself.

      • It should be structured in a way that allows for optimal response from the child.

      • Portfolio assessment or other alternate assessment approaches can be used.

      • The test sessions should be more playlike to sustain the child’s attention.

      • The cultural backgrounds of the individual should be considered.


    Types of early childhood assessment procedures
    Types of Early Childhood Assessment Procedures

    • General assessment procedures include those areas such as team assessment models, the assessment of play behavior, and the assessment of social behavior and interactions of young children.

    • Developmental screening tests provide a brief assessment of a child’s abilities that are highly associated with future skills.

      • Most are quick and easy to administer, but false positive and false negative screening decisions can be made.

    • Norm-referenced developmental testing

    • Preacademic and readiness testing includes items specifically designed to measure skills that students need to perform adequately in the early school years.

    • Testing for educational programming involves criterion-referenced inventories that have been developed specifically for the preschool age range.


    Team assessment a collaborative effort
    Team Assessment: A Collaborative Effort

    • In arena assessment, a child is evaluated by an entire team.

      Natural Assessment Model:

    • In this model, the evaluation team is composed of members from different disciplines who observe the child’s performance in a variety of developmental domains.

    • The assessment is carried out in a play setting and involves interaction with peers, focusing on the child’s naturarl interaction with the environment.

    • The parent is also interviewed and histories are obtained.

    • Each team member completes a developmental checklist called the Mini-wheel of Developmental Milestones.


    Team assessment a collaborative effort1
    Team Assessment: A Collaborative Effort

    • Team members and their roles:

      • Speech-language pathologist: language scores

      • Preschool teacher: social, emotional, and motor scores

      • Psychologist: intellectual score

      • Teacher assistant: motor activities

      • Social worker: explains Mini-wheel and procedures, interviews parents

      • Nurse: vision and hearing screening


    Play based assessment
    Play-Based Assessment

    • The area of play-based assessment is extremely important when considering the overall developmental status of young children.

    • A suggested sequence of activities:

      • Phase 1: Unstructured Facilitation

      • Phase II: Structured Facilitation

      • Phase III: Child-Child Interaction

      • Phase IV: Parent-Child Interaction

      • Phase V: Motor Play

      • Phase VI: Snack


    Play based assessment1
    Play-Based Assessment

    • There can also be observational guidelines as well as checklists for the areas of cognitive development, social-emotional development, communication and language development, and sensorimotor development.

    • Some specific play assessment instruments might also be used by the practitioner.

    • Other instruments are designed to evaluate the more specific area of social behaviors and interactions of young children.


    Screening instruments
    Screening Instruments

    • Screening instruments should be used by teachers, social workers, school psychologists, and parent participation.

    • Early childhood screening tests are frequently administered to large groups of children.

      AGS Early Screening Profiles (ESP)

    • The ESP is designed for use with children ages 2 to 6.

    • Its primary purpose is to aid in the identification of those children with possible disabilities or those who might be potentially gifted.

    • It uses an ecological approach to screening.


    Screening instruments1
    Screening Instruments

    • Description

      • Cognitive/Language Profile

      • Motor Profile

      • Self-Help/Social Profile

      • Articulation Survey

      • Home Survey

      • Health History Survey

      • Behavior Survey

    • Interpretation of Results

      • The ESP has two levels of scoring.

      • In Level I, the individual profiles and total screening are reported in screening indexes that range from one to six.

      • For Level II, a variety of derived scores are available, including standard scores, percentile ranks, normal curve equivalents, stanines, and age equivalents.


    Screening instruments2
    Screening Instruments

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • Over 1,100 children ages 2 to 6 were included in the standardization

      • Reliability

        • Reliability coefficients are good, except for the Motor profile.

      • Validity

        • Validity coefficients are good.

        • A thorough discussion of validity can be found in the manual.


    Screening instruments3
    Screening Instruments

    • Review of Relevant Research

      • A few research studies were located.

      • ESP has a moderate agreement with the Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning—Revised when identifying children who were educationally at risk.

      • ESP correctly classified 81 percent of preschoolers at risk for cognitive delay.

      • ESP is a good predictor of the Differential Ability Scales total score.


    Screening instruments4
    Screening Instruments

    Development Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-3 (DIAL-3)

    • The DIAL-3 is easy and quick to administer

    • It is individually administered to identify children ages 3 to 6 who are in need of a more comprehensive evaluation.

    • Description

      • There are items that measure the areas of Language, Concepts, Motor Skills, Self-Help Development, and Social Development.

      • There are also supplemental, shorter rating scales for the areas of social/emotional and intelligibility.

    • Interpretation of Results

      • Percentile ranks and standard scores are available for both the total test and the five areas.


    Screening instruments5
    Screening Instruments

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • A stratified sample of 1,560 English-speaking and 605 Spanish-speaking children were included in the standardization.

      • Reliability

        • The reliability coefficients are acceptable.

      • Validity

        • Results of several studies determining the criterion-related validity of the DIAL-3 are reported in the manual. The manual also includes discussions of content and construct validity.

        • Validity coefficients are acceptable.

    • Review of Relevant Research

      • No research literature on the DIAL-3 was located

      • A few reviews and empirical studies on the 1983 DIAL-R were found.

      • The DIAL-3 has improved its technical characteristics over the previous edition.


    Developmental inventories norm referenced
    Developmental Inventories (Norm-Referenced)

    • Norm-referenced developmental tests should be used by teachers, school psychologists, and social workers for:

      • Screening

      • Establishment of educational need

      • Assistance in eligibility decisions

      • Establishment of IEP goals


    Developmental inventories norm referenced1
    Developmental Inventories (Norm-Referenced)

    Battelle Developmental Inventory-2 (BDI-2)

    • The BDI-2 is designed to measure developmental skills in children birth through age 8.

    • It can be used for:

      • Assessment of typically developing children

      • Assessment and identification of children with disabilities or developmental delay

      • Planning and providing instruction and intervention

      • Evaluating early childhood programs


    Developmental inventories norm referenced2
    Developmental Inventories (Norm-Referenced)

    • Description

      • The BDI-2 consists of 450 items that measure 13 areas that are grouped into five separate domains

      • Adaptive: Self Care, Personal Responsibility

      • Personal-Social: Adult Interaction, Peer Interaction, Self-Concept and Social Role

      • Communication: Receptive and Expressive Communication

      • Motor: Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Perceptual Motor

      • Cognitive: Attention and Memory, Reasoning and Academic Skills, Perception and Concepts


    Developmental inventories norm referenced3
    Developmental Inventories (Norm-Referenced)

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • A total of 2,500 children from birth to age 8 were included

      • Reliability

        • Reliability coefficients were good

      • Validity

        • Content validity was addressed through professional judgments, coverage of important constructs, and empirical item analysis.

        • Criterion-related validity coefficients were good

        • Construct validity was determined by showing increases in scores as a function of age as well as factor analysis.

    • Review of Relevant Research

      • No research was located on the relatively new BDI-2, but some was conducted on the original BDI.


    Developmental inventories norm referenced4
    Developmental Inventories (Norm-Referenced)

    Developmental Profile-II (DP-II)

    • The DP-II is designed to evaluate children from birth to age 9

    • It is meant to be used as a parent interview, but can be used as a self-interview that is usually completed by the teacher.

    • Description

      • Physical Developmental Age Scale

      • Self-Help Developmental Age Scale

      • Social Developmental Age Scale

      • Academic Developmental Age Scale

      • Communication Developmental Age Scale


    Developmental inventories norm referenced5
    Developmental Inventories (Norm-Referenced)

    • Interpretation of Results

      • The DP-II uses age scores that compare a person’s performance on the test to a “typical performance” by a person of the same age.

      • The interpretative procedures for the DP-II are less than adequate.

    • Technical Characteristics

      • Normative Sample

        • A total of over 2,300 children, ages birth to 9 ½ were used.

      • Reliability

        • Few reliability data are offered, so more information is necessary

      • Validity

        • Information on validity is limited.


    Developmental inventories norm referenced6
    Developmental Inventories (Norm-Referenced)

    • Review of Relevant Research

      • There is limited research focusing on the DP-II, although there are some studies on the original DP.

      • The DP-II has been reviewed negatively in some research, such as for its technical inadequacy.


    Readiness and preacademic instruments
    Readiness and Preacademic Instruments

    • Readiness and preacademic instruments should be used by teachers for: screening, establishment of IEP goals, and grouping for instruction.

      Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-3 (Boehm-3)

    • Age level: Kindergarten to grade 2

    • Type of administration: Group

    • Technical adequacy: Limited

    • Scores yielded: Percentiles, performance ranges

    • The Boehm-3 is a group-administered instrument designed to measure a child’s mastery of concepts that are necessary for successful performance early in school.

    • In general, the concept categories of space, quantity, and time are measured, as well as a miscellaneous category.


    Readiness and preacademic instruments1
    Readiness and Preacademic Instruments

    Bracken Basic Concepts Scale-Revised (BBCS-R)

    • Age level: 2 ½ to 8 years

    • Type of administration: Individual

    • Technical adequacy: Adequate standardization, validity, and reliability

    • Scores yielded: Standard scores, percentile ranks, age equivalents

    • The BBCS-R is a comprehensive measure of basic concepts.

    • The scale includes 308 items that measure 11 conceptual areas: color, letters, numbers/counting, comparisons, shapes, direction/position, social awareness, size, texture/materials, quantity, and time/sequence


    Readiness and preacademic instruments2
    Readiness and Preacademic Instruments

    Metropolitan Readiness Tests-Sixth Edition (MRT-6)

    • Age level: Preschool to beginning first grade

    • Type of administration: Group or individual

    • Technical adequacy: Excellent standardization, adequate reliability, questionable validity

    • Scores yielded: Percentile ranks, standines, performance ratings, scaled scores, normal curve equivalents

    • The MRT-6 is the oldest and most widely used readiness test.

    • It is heavily weighted toward preacademic skills as opposed to perceptual or developmental skills.


    Developmental inventories criterion referenced
    Developmental Inventories (Criterion-Referenced)

    • Criterion-referenced developmental tests should be used by teachers for: development of IEP goals and objectives, and IEP evaluation.

      Behavior Characteristics Progression-Revised (BCP-R)

    • The BCP-R is a continuum of behaviors in chart form.

    • It contains over 2,300 observable traits referred to as behavioral characteristics.

    • The behavioral characteristics are grouped into 56 criterion-referenced categories called strands.

    • This tool was intended to assist teachers of exceptional children to structure into a more coherent and manageable sequence the teaching of the various areas they are asked to cover.


    Developmental inventories criterion referenced1
    Developmental Inventories (Criterion-Referenced)

    • As an assessment tool, the BCP-R provides the teacher with a comprehensive chart of pupil behaviors to aid in identifying which behavioral characteristics a pupil displays or does not display.

    • Description:

      • Each strand contains up to 50 behaviors to measure the areas of cognition, language, gross-motor, fine-motor, social, self-help, and vocational skills.

      • There are thousands of teacher-developed instructional activities for 1,900 of the behavior characteristics included in the BCP-R

    • Interpretation of Results

      • The behavior characteristics are scored according to the following system: behavior not displayed, behavior exhibited, but less than the 75% level, behavior displayed at the 75% level with no assistance, or physical disability prevents demonstrations of behavior.


    Developmental inventories criterion referenced2
    Developmental Inventories (Criterion-Referenced)

    Brigance Inventory of Early Development-II

    • Brigance Inventory of Early Development-II was designed for use with individuals below developmental age 7.

    • It can be used to identify strengths and weaknesses, to determine instructional objectives, and to indicate the individual’s approximate developmental level in various areas.

    • Description:

      • Brigance Inventory of Early Development-II measures abilities in 11 skill areas.

      • These include assessments- task analyses of the skill areas

      • There are also comprehensive skill sequences- more detailed sequences


    Developmental inventories criterion referenced3
    Developmental Inventories (Criterion-Referenced)

    • Age equivalents and standard scores are available.

    • The 11 areas are: Preambulatory Motor Skills an Behaviors, Gross-Motor Skills and Behaviors, Fine-Motor Skills and Behaviors, Self-Help Skills, Speech and Language Skills, General Knowledge and Comprehension, Social and Emotional Development, Readiness, Basic Reading Skills, Manuscript Writing, and Basic Math.

  • Interpretation of Results:

    • The instructional objectives are spelled out based on the student’s performance.


  • Developmental inventories criterion referenced4
    Developmental Inventories (Criterion-Referenced)

    Vulpé Assessment Battery-Revised (Vulpé-R)

    • The Vulpé-R is a developmentally based system for measuring behaviors of children from birth to age 6.

    • It can be used to determine an appropriate specific teaching approach, to indicate program goals and objectives, and to provide an accountability system for individual programs.

    • Description:

      • There are eight skill areas or sections:

        • Basic Senses and Functions

        • Gross Motor Behaviors

        • Fine Motor Behaviors


    Developmental inventories criterion referenced5
    Developmental Inventories (Criterion-Referenced)

    • Language Behaviors: Auditory Expressive Language, Auditory Receptive Language

    • Cognitive Processes and Specific Concepts: Body Concept, Color Concepts, Shape Concepts, Size Concepts, Space Concepts, Time Concepts, Amount and Number Concepts, Visual Memory, Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Attention, Comprehension, and Memory, Cause/Effect or Means/End Behavior, Categorizing/Combining Scheme

    • Organization of Behavior: Attention and Goal Orientation, Internal Control to Environmental Limits, Problem Solving and Learning Patterns, Dependence/Independence

    • Activities of Daily Living

    • Assessment of Environment

  • Interpretation of Results:

    • Each item is given one of 7 possible scores: no, attention, physical assistance, social-emotional assistance, verbal assistance, independent, transfer

    • Age levels are provided for the items, but they represent gross indicators and should be used only to evaluate relative strengths and weaknesses.


  • Additional development inventories
    Additional Development Inventories

    Assessment Log and Developmental Progress Chart-Infants

    • Age level: Birth to 24 months

    • Description:

      • The instrument includes items that are correlated with 24 curriculum sequences and is presented in checklist format.

      • It is based on a well-researched model that shows promise in determining instructional goals as well as providing instructional procedures.

      • Many of the items might need to be adapted and care should be taken to choose the areas that are adaptive.


    Additional development inventories1
    Additional Development Inventories

    Callier-Azusa Scale

    • Age level: Birth to 9 years

    • Description:

      • This is an individually administered instrument designed to assess the developmental level of children who are deaf, blind, or who have severe disabilities.

      • The tests should be used to determine strengths and weaknesses and to identify general educational goals rather than to assess an individual’s developmental level.

      • It measures 5 areas: motor development, perceptual development, daily living skills, cognition, communication and language, and social development.


    Chapter 17

    Chapter 17

    Vocational/Transitional Assessment


    Vocational transitional assessment
    Vocational/Transitional Assessment

    • The emphasis on vocational/transitional programs continues to increase.

    • Transition must be included in a student’s IEP by the age of 16.

    • Although in the past the focus of vocational assessment was on the use of formal instruments, current trends in the field are toward more informal techniques that help develop a more encompassing database that can and should stretch across a student’s school career.

    • If vocational assessment is conducted and the information is used approximately, it is logical to assume that vocational programming goals on IEPs, vocational programs, and curricula and the quality of transition services will improve.

    • Vocational assessment has evolved from and employs the talents of several professional discipline areas.


    Vocational transitional assessment1
    Vocational/Transitional Assessment

    • Most states conceptualize vocational assessment in terms of three levels of intensity:

      • Level I assessments are given to all students with disabilities and typically prior to age 14.

      • Level II assessments are conducted for the specific purpose of developing goals and objectives related to the transition planning process.

      • Level III assessments focus on vocational outcomes and might include work samples, situations, and authentic assessment.


    Support for transition services
    Support for Transition Services

    • Interest has increased in and requirements developed for providing transition services for students with disabilities that will better prepare them for the world of work.

    • Several legislative acts have supported the need for cooperative planning and service delivery to ensure successful transition programs.

    • In 1984, the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act expanded the services provided to students with disabilities through vocational education and assessment to include transition planning and programming.


    Support for transition services1
    Support for Transition Services

    Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act

    • The Carl D. Perkins Act provided for an increase in the accessibility to vocational education services for special education students.

    • The provisions are that:

      • 10% of a state’s grant allotment be used to provide services to students with disabilities

      • each student and his/her parents be informed of vocational opportunities at least one year before provision of services

      • equal access be provided to vocational educational services as deemed appropriate through the IEP process.

    • The most recent proposals to the act would provide for special focus grants for serving students with disabilities.


    Other important legislative acts
    Other Important Legislative Acts

    • A. Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act of 1992 stressed the need for supported employment services that could include vocational/transitional assessment.

    • B. The 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires transition planning to begin no later than age 16.

    • C. The School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994 stressed efforts to improve postschool outcomes for all youth.


    Guidelines for establishing transition services importance of vocational assessment
    Guidelines for Establishing Transition Services: Importance of Vocational Assessment

    • Federal legislation places emphasis on transition services being based on individual need and being referenced to student preferences and interests.

    • Transition planning has many positive outcomes.

    • The following general guidelines should serve as a model for effective vocationally-related transition programming

      • Transition planning and programming should begin no later than a student’s first year in high school.

        • The more barriers a student faces, the earlier this process should begin.

      • The assessment aspect of transition planning and programming may begin before the first year of high school.

        • Interest inventories, aptitude tests, work samples, curriculum-based vocational assessment, and even on-the-job assessment may be administered.

      • Vocational assessment becomes critical to the transition process as the student prepares for postsecondary adjustment.

        • During IEP discussions, a written vocational assessment repot may be reviewed if available; otherwise relevant vocational assessment data should be discussed.


    Guidelines for establishing transition services importance of vocational assessment1
    Guidelines for Establishing Transition Services: Importance of Vocational Assessment

    Other Important Considerations

    • When assessment information is not accurate, current, and relevant, transition planning falls apart.

    • This necessitates the assessment process be ongoing and a shared responsibility.

    • Information collected can include: psychoeducational information, sociobehavioral information, academic information, and career/vocational assessment information.

    • The assessment process itself should involve the student with disabilities.


    Guidelines for establishing transition services importance of vocational assessment2
    Guidelines for Establishing Transition Services: Importance of Vocational Assessment

    • A 1998 position statement by the Division on Career Development and Transition (DCDT) of the Council for Exceptional Children noted that self-determination and self-advocacy are important skills for all students.

    • Students are encouraged to assess themselves and develop goals that will help themselves and that will focus on their vision for the future.

    • Students should be assessed on social competence and social skills.


    Guidelines for establishing transition services importance of vocational assessment3
    Guidelines for Establishing Transition Services: Importance of Vocational Assessment

    Developing Transition Goals for the IEP

    • Transitions occur in or out of school regardless of whether there has been careful assessment-based planning.

    • So, it is important that vocational assessment data be provided by a variety of individuals at the IEP meeting in order to develop desired outcomes and specific goals and objectives.

    • Following development of the transition goals, the IEP is implemented and progress monitored regularly.

    • Follow-up assessment should be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the transition services for both the individual student and for the district/program in general.

    • The statement of needed transition services may span a multiyear period, and IEP transition goals may involve adult service providers, family members, and other interested individuals.


    Informal procedures
    Informal Procedures of Vocational Assessment

    Checklists and Rating Scales

    • Checklists and rating scales should be used by teachers for: screening for vocational/career preferences, interests, and aptitudes, and developing educational and vocational programs.

    • A variety of informal procedures might be used to evaluate vocational skills.

    • This might involve the use of rating scales completed by the teacher that include items related to placement in vocational education or in private employment.

    • Although checklists and rating scales may be easily employed by teachers, the information gleaned from such assessments might not provide a complete portrait of a student’s aptitudes and abilities.


    Informal procedures1
    Informal Procedures of Vocational Assessment

    Work Samples

    • Work samples should be used by vocational assessment personnel to evaluate performance of specific and general work skills and worker traits and characteristics.

    • Work samples are situational assessment tools used to simulate tasks associated with jobs in the labor market.

    • These assessments are useful for determining an individual’s interests, abilities, work habits, and social skills.

    • Work samples are both commercially and locally developed.

    • Locally developed work samples may be the most beneficial type.


    Informal procedures2
    Informal Procedures of Vocational Assessment

    Curriculum-Based Vocational Assessment (CBVA)

    • CBVA should be used by teachers and vocational assessment personnel to evaluate acquisition of vocational and related skills embedded within content and applied courses.

    • CBVA can be conceived of as an assessment approach as well as a specific method.

    • CBVA may be used within existing resources, administered through performance-based activities, and provided within a vocational framework.

    • It allows for assessing and planning within a variety of settings and contexts.


    Informal procedures3
    Informal Procedures of Vocational Assessment

    • The steps for CBVA are to:

      • Identify key development personnel

      • Conduct a comprehensive search of program models, research literature, vocational evaluation/assessment instrumentation, and pertinent legislation.

      • Establish basic considerations for the model based on previous research, and analyze and synthesize the programmative needs.

      • Establish an operational plan to implement the process.

      • Pilot and evaluate the CBVA implementation activities.

      • Implement, evaluate, and expand options.


    Informal procedures4
    Informal Procedures of Vocational Assessment

    Direct Observation and Ecological Assessment

    • Direct observation and ecological assessment should be used by teachers, vocational assessment personnel, and transition personnel to: evaluate performance of specific and general work skills and work-related behaviors, and determine modifications for instruction.

    • Ecological assessment may involve quantitative or qualitative measures.

    • It is a multidirectional procedure.

    • Job matching and a job site analysis are important components.

    • Ecological and student repertoire inventories were originally developed for students with severe disabilities, but can be used with students with disabilities in general.


    Informal procedures5
    Informal Procedures of Vocational Assessment

    • Ecological inventories help analyze the job requirements.

    • When the ecological inventory is completed, a student repertoire inventory, which assesses the student’s performance compared to that of nondisabled peers on the ecologically inventoried skills, must be implemented.

    • The advantages of using these inventories are that they assess functional skills in the actual environment where those skills will be used and that the performance is assessed in the presence of naturally occurring conditions.

    • A direct observation method related to ecological assessment is situational assessment, where the evaluator assesses performance in settings and situations as close as possible to an individual’s future work environments.


    Informal procedures6
    Informal Procedures of Vocational Assessment

    Portfolio Assessment

    • Portfolio assessment should be used teachers and vocational assessment personnel to: construct a record over time of content and skills acquired, document job experiences, and evaluate progress.

    • Career portfolios address many assessment goals.

    • Uses:

      • Informal individual assessment prior to placement in a program

      • Vocational counseling

      • A cooperative planning tool to identify those competencies most important for vocational success and target those same competencies for intervention.


    Informal procedures7
    Informal Procedures of Vocational Assessment

    Outcomes Assessment

    • Outcomes assessment should be used by teachers, program evaluators, administrators, and vocational assessment personnel to evaluate both individual vocational/educational outcomes and overall program effectiveness.

    • Outcomes assessment models focus on individual achievements, statuses, or behaviors.

    • Vocational rehabilitation agencies may use the assessments to:

      • Facilitate a smooth transition of the student with disabilities

      • Determine if the linkage between vocational rehabilitation and school programs is strong and well coordinated


    Informal procedures8
    Informal Procedures of Vocational Assessment

    • Anticipate personnel and service needs and to document systems change

    • Provide information for long-term planning and program improvement.

  • Outcomes assessment makes use of follow-up data

  • The key to outcomes assessment is that data collection must not cease at the end of school careers.


  • Interest and aptitude instruments
    Interest and Aptitude Instruments of Vocational Assessment

    • Interest and aptitude instruments should be used by vocational assessment personnel for: screening for vocational/career interests and vocational aptitudes, and developing educational/vocational programs

    • Many formal instruments have been designed to evaluate an individual’s vocational interests and aptitude

    • Most traditional instruments of this type are pencil-and-paper tests that provide some scores in various aptitude areas and/or career-occupational interest areas of the student.


    Interest and aptitude instruments1
    Interest and Aptitude Instruments of Vocational Assessment

    Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT)

    • Age level: Grades 7 to 12

    • Technical adequacy: Validity and reliability have been supported

    • Areas measured: Verbal Reasoning, Numerical Ability, Abstract Reasoning, Clerical Speed and Accuracy, Mechanical Reasoning, Space Relations, Spelling, and Language Use

    • Types of scores: Percentile ranks, stanines, and standard scores

    • The DAT are among the most widely used measures of multiple abilities.

    • It is designed for group administration.


    Interest and aptitude instruments2
    Interest and Aptitude Instruments of Vocational Assessment

    Job Observation and Behavior Scale (JOBS)

    • Age level: 15 years and older

    • Technical adequacy: Adequate; interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity studies conducted

    • Areas measured: Work-required daily living activities, work-required behaviors, and work-required job duties

    • Types of scores: Raw scores

    • The JOBS evaluates job performance.

    • It is an employee performance assessment designed for those who work with the training and placement of secondary students and adults in the work force.


    Interest and aptitude instruments3
    Interest and Aptitude Instruments of Vocational Assessment

    Occupational Aptitude Survey and Interest Schedule-3 (OASIS-3)

    • Age level: Grades 8 to 12 and adult

    • Technical adequacy: Adequate reliability and validity

    • Areas measured: Aptitude Survey, Interest Schedule

    • Types of scores: Standard scores, percentiles

    • The OASIS-3 measures both aptitude and interest


    Interest and aptitude instruments4
    Interest and Aptitude Instruments of Vocational Assessment

    Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory

    • Age level: Ages 16 and older

    • Technical adequacy: Test-retest coefficients were moderate to strong; validity data were supportive

    • Areas measured: Occupational Themes, Basic Interests, Occupational Scales, Special Scales, Administrative Indexes

    • Types of scores: A variety of scores including T-scores

    • The Inventory is intended to measure an individual’s interest in various occupations

    • It can be given individually, in groups, or by mail.

    • It is considered to be one of the best interest inventories available and is one of the most widely used instruments for adult assessment.


    Interest and aptitude instruments5
    Interest and Aptitude Instruments of Vocational Assessment

    Vocational Preference Inventory-Revised (VPI-R)

    • Age level: 14 years to adult

    • Technical adequacy: Limited data

    • Areas measured: Personality and Vocational Interests, Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional, Self-Control, Masculinity-Femininity, Status, Infrequency, Acquiescence

    • Types of scores: Standard scores (T-scores)

    • The VPI-R was designed to measure an individual’s personality and vocational interests.

    • It is easy to administer and score.


    Interest and aptitude instruments6
    Interest and Aptitude Instruments of Vocational Assessment

    Wide Range Interest-Opinion Test (WRIOT)

    • Age level: Kindergarten to adult

    • Technical adequacy: Large normative sample, limited reliability and validity data

    • Areas measured: Examinee’s preferences in 18 interest and 8 aptitude areas

    • Types of scores: T-scores, profile analysis

    • The WRIOT is a reading-free instrument of occupational and leisure activities in which examinees must indicate among a series of three pictures which they like least and which they like most.


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