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UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water. Chapter 21 Water and Solutions Chapter 22 Water Systems Chapter 23 How Water Shapes the Land. Chapter Twenty-Three: How Water Shapes the Land. 23.1 Weathering and Erosion 23.2 Shaping the Land 23.3 Sedimentary Rocks.

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unit seven earth s water
UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water
  • Chapter 21 Water and Solutions
  • Chapter 22 Water Systems
  • Chapter 23 How Water Shapes the Land
chapter twenty three how water shapes the land
Chapter Twenty-Three: How Water Shapes the Land
  • 23.1 Weathering and Erosion
  • 23.2 Shaping the Land
  • 23.3 Sedimentary Rocks
chapter 23 2 learning goals
Chapter 23.2 Learning Goals
  • Tell what makes a river and describe its features.
  • Discuss how rivers and glaciers move sediment.
  • Use a model to describe how sediment is sorted by water.
investigation 23b
Investigation 23B

Human Impacts on Coastal Erosion

  • Key Question:
    • How do people living and working in coastal areas affect erosion?
23 2 moving sediment by water
23.2 Moving sediment by water
  • Both running water and glaciers alter the land by moving sediment to new locations.
  • Three factors that affect the amount of sediment carried by water include: the volume of water, the slope of the land, and how rocky or smooth the land is.
23 2 moving sediment by water8
23.2 Moving sediment by water
  • A stream table can model how water flows over the land.
  • The steeper the slope, the faster the water and sediment will move over land.
23 2 moving sediment by water9
23.2 Moving sediment by water
  • The process of depositing sediment after it has been moved by water, wind, ice, or gravity is called deposition.
23 2 moving sediment by water10
23.2 Moving sediment by water
  • You can tell the speed of flowing water by the size of the rock pieces found on a stream bottom.
  • The grains settle in order, making a pattern called graded bedding.
23 2 rivers
23.2 Rivers
  • A river is a large, flowing body of water while a stream is a small river.
  • The path that a river or stream follows is called a channel.
23 2 rivers13
23.2 Rivers
  • Erosion by rivers is an important part of why land looks the way it does at any given time.
  • Valleysare low-lying land features that are surrounded by higher land features such as hills and mountains.
23 2 rivers14
23.2 Rivers
  • A deltais the landform associated with the mouth of a river as it flows into an ocean, lake, or another river.
  • A floodplain is flat land alongside a river that tends to flood.
23 2 meanders
23.2 Meanders
  • Some rivers form S-shaped curves called meanders.
  • Water flows at different speeds in different parts of the river.
23 2 meanders18
23.2 Meanders
  • A braided stream has many channels that criss-cross each other.
  • Braided streams get their names from the braided appearance of their many channels.
23 2 glaciers move sediment
23.2 Glaciers move sediment
  • A glacier forms on land when snow and ice accumulate faster than they melt.
  • As layers grow, pressure builds and changes the snow to thick ice.
  • The thick ice becomes so heavy that it becomes plastic and flows.
23 2 glaciers move sediment20
23.2 Glaciers move sediment
  • As the ice of a glacier flows down a valley, it grinds the valley floor with pieces of rock caught up in the ice.
  • This grinding smooths the rock it encounters and changes the shape of the valley so that it is U-shaped.
23 2 the effects of ice and glaciers on land and our climate
23.2 The effects of ice and glaciers on land and our climate
  • About 30% of Earth’s surface was covered by glaciers 10,000 years ago.
  • Retreating glaciers often leave behind large blocks of ice, surrounded by rock and sediment.
  • Rocky soil in New England is evidence of glaciers moving and depositing rocks and sediment.
23 2 the effects of ice and glaciers on land and our climate23
23.2 The effects of ice and glaciers on land and our climate
  • As the climate warms and glaciers melt, huge piles of rocks scratch surfaces and erode valleys or mountaintops.
23 2 the effects of ice and glaciers on land and our climate24
23.2 The effects of ice and glaciers on land and our climate
  • Permafrost is permanently frozen soil.
  • The amount of permafrost on Earth is decreasing, another concern of scientists studying climate change.