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UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water. Chapter 21 Water and Solutions Chapter 22 Water Systems Chapter 23 How Water Shapes the Land. Chapter Twenty-Two: Water Systems. 22.1 Water on Earth’s Surface 22.2 The Water Cycle 22.3 Oceans. Chapter 22.3 Learning Goals.

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unit seven earth s water
UNIT SEVEN: Earth’s Water
  • Chapter 21 Water and Solutions
  • Chapter 22 Water Systems
  • Chapter 23 How Water Shapes the Land
chapter twenty two water systems
Chapter Twenty-Two: Water Systems
  • 22.1 Water on Earth’s Surface
  • 22.2 The Water Cycle
  • 22.3 Oceans
chapter 22 3 learning goals
Chapter 22.3 Learning Goals
  • Discuss the effects of temperature and salinity on Earth’s oceans.
  • Distinguish features of the ocean floor.
  • Compare and contrast the effects of surface currents and deep ocean currents.
22 3 oceans
22.3 Oceans
  • Ocean water is about 3.5 percent salt.
  • The word salinity is a measure of the dissolved salts in water.
  • Most of the salt in ocean water is sodium chloride.
22 3 oceans7
22.3 Oceans
  • In some places, special ponds called salt evaporation pondsharvest salt from the ocean.
22 3 oceans8
22.3 Oceans

The salt in the oceans comes from:

  • minerals in the ocean floor,
  • gases released by volcanoes, and
  • rivers that carry dissolved minerals out to sea.
22 3 importance of oceans
22.3 Importance of oceans
  • Oceans are an important source of water for the water cycle.
  • Oceans spread energy and heat from the hot equator to the colder poles.
  • Phytoplankton produce most of the oxygen in the atmosphere.
22 3 oceans and earth s climate
22.3 Oceans and Earth’s climate
  • The oceans are able to store heat energy.
  • The water on Earth prevents the planet from getting too hot or too cold.
22 3 oceans and earth s climate12
22.3 Oceans and Earth’s climate
  • The climates on the coastline are milder than they are inland because ocean-warmed air masses move over the oceans toward the land.
22 3 oceans and earth s climate13
22.3 Oceans and Earth’s climate
  • The climates on coastlines are milder than they are inland because ocean-warmed wind and air masses move over the oceans toward the land.
22 3 surface currents and gyres
22.3 Surface currents and gyres
  • The Sun’s unequal heating of Earth and the Coriolis effect cause permanent global wind patterns.
  • Surface ocean currents to form large rotating systems called gyres.
22 3 surface currents and gyres15
22.3 Surface currents and gyres
  • One well-known current is the Gulf Stream.
  • Europe has mild winters due to both prevailing westerlies and the heat energy of the Gulf Stream.
22 3 deep ocean currents
22.3 Deep ocean currents
  • Deep ocean currents move below the surface of the ocean.
  • They are slower than surface ocean currents.
22 3 the ocean floor
22.3 The ocean floor
  • Many of the important features of the oceans are hidden in deep water.
  • The continental margin is the region around continents that includes the:
    • continental shelf,
    • continental slope, and
    • continental rise.
22 3 the continental shelf
22.3 The continental shelf
  • Sand drifting down the steep face of a continental shelf cuts into the shelf just like streams cut into valleys.
22 3 features of the ocean floor
22.3 Features of the ocean floor
  • Maps can show the location of the continental shelf.
  • The true ocean floor is called the abyssal plain.
  • It is flat and smooth because a thick layer of sediment covers its features.
22 3 the deep ocean floor
22.3 The deep ocean floor
  • A barrier islandis a low, sandy island that lies parallel to the shoreline.
  • A bankis a low, flat region on the continental shelf.
  • A seamountis a steep-sided mountain that rises from the ocean floor.
22 3 the deep ocean floor21
22.3 The deep ocean floor
  • A guyotis a seamount that has eroded so that it has a flat top and is underwater.
  • Mid-ocean ridgesmark places where two tectonic plates are separating and new ocean crust is being made.
  • Deep-ocean trenchesare the deepest parts of the ocean.
investigation 22c
Investigation 22C

Global Winds and Ocean Currents

  • Key Question:
    • How do temperature and salinity cause ocean layering?
slide24

Rip Currents

  • More than 80% of water rescues performed by surf beach lifeguards are due to rip currents.
  • Rip currents are sometimes called riptides, or undertow. Learn why these two terms are misleading.