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Greece. Vocabulary Terms. Acropolis-" High city”, fortified hilltop city found in most ancient Greek cities. Colonnade-a row of columns evenly spaced. Mural-wall painting. Peristyle Court- Is an open colonnade courtyard, often having a pool or garden.

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Hypostyle Hall-A large interior room characterized by many closely spaced columns that support its roof.
Cella-the principle interior room at the center of a Greek or Roman temple, with in which cult statue was usually housed.
Fluted-in architecture, evenly spaced, rounded parallel vertical grooves incised on shafts of columns.
Archaic Smile-the curved lips of an ancient Greek statue, usually interpreted as an attempt to animate the features.
  • Aegean Bronze Age or Early Bronze Age (3000-2000 BCE)
  • Minoan Period (2000-1400 BCE)
  • Mycenaean Culture(1600-1000 BCE)
  • Dark Age (1100-750 BCE)
  • Archaic Period(700-480 BCE)
  • Classical Period(480-323 BCE)
  • Hellenistic Period(323-146 BCE)
about the greeks
About the Greeks
  • History as a discipline was first conceived by the Greeks.
  • Democracy conceived by Greeks.
  • Crossroads between Africa, Asia, and Europe.
  • Mountainous terrain, mild climate.
  • Location=communication and trade
  • Expert navigators
  • Polytheistic
  • Very influential in the modern western world.
  • Importance of the individual
  • Philosophy
  • Knowledge is important.
  • Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic are three main periods.
  • Olympics

Kouros, c. 540 BCEThese stiff, formal, and stylized statues of young men are an important feature of Archaic art. Possibly represented Apollo (God of music, poetry, plague, oracles, medicine, light and knowledge) or in remembrance of a deceased individual.


Peplos Kore,c.530 BCERepresent Persephone or a deceased. Depicted in thick drapery, ornate and (in painted examples) very colorful and often have elaborate braided hairdos.  Have a much more relaxed and natural posture, sometimes with an extended arm.


Aristodikos, c. 500 BCEThis Kouros has short hair and the hands are not attached to the sides of the body. The statue with its more rounded, less stylized characteristics, and with its light pose (it is not as "stiff" as other kouroi,) represents a forward step in the development of art, and prepares the ground for the eventual move towards classical sculpture.

Warrior Heads, c. 490 BCE-Found at a temple on the island of Aegina. They were part of the decoration of the temple's east facade.

Zeus and Ganymede, late Archaic, terracottaZeus-is the "Father of Gods and men”. God of sky and thunder.Ganymede- is a divine hero whose homeland was Troy.  The most attractive of mortals, which led Zeus to abduct him to serve as cup-bearer to the gods. 

journaling assignment
Journaling Assignment
  • At the end of each class when finished with notes early, an image will be displayed.
  • You will journal about this image until we are until the bell rings.
  • 10 points each.
  • What does it mean? Design elements? What is it? Feelings/emotions invoked? Like/Dislike?
classical greek sculpture
Classical Greek Sculpture

Realism was more than a portrayal of mankind as he really is. It went much further, trying to portray man as he might be. Greek sculpture portrayed the ideal, rather than the real.

The archaic smile is replaced with varied, but generally serious expressions.


Kritios Boy, 480 BCE

-A new version of the Kouros

-Softer lines.


-Motion is apparent, rather than implied.

-Archaic stiffness gives way to naturalism.


The Discus Thrower, 450 BCE

-Roman copy

-Often in this time period a moment of balance is portrayed.


Charioteer, 474 BCE

-Dress of a charioteer: long chiton, shoulder cords, bits of reins in his hands.

-Part of a chariot group, bits of which have been found.

-Eyes inlaid with glass, sliver for headband, copper on the lips.

-Dedicated for a victory.

-Archaic head; Slight twist in body, columnar chiton (dress).


The Spear Bearer, 450-40 BC

-contraposto stance is apparent.

- Roman copy


Zeus, 460-450 BCE

-Rescued from an ancient shipwreck off Cape Artemision in 1926.

-Originally held a trident.

-Bronze. Copper details.

-Plait and hairstyle are late archaic survivals.

-Vigorous, yet static at the same time.


Warriors, 460-450 BCE

-Severe style in stance, but more advanced in treatment of anatomy.

-Found off coast of Sicily in 1972.

-Part of a group of warriors.

-Expression set in the whole body.

the parthenon 438 bce
The Parthenon, 438 BCE
  • One of the world’s greatest architectural achievements, the Parthenon, in Athens is also one of the world’s most important sculptural sources.
  • Unfortunately, like the building itself, most of its sculptures are now fragmented.


  • Many figures have been removed altogether.
  • The British museum holds a considerable number of significant pieces, known as the Elgin Marbles.
At the heart of the Parthenon stood an enormous statue of Athena, now lost.
  • Clad in ivory and gold, she dominated the main chamber, or cella.
hellenistic sculpture
Hellenistic Sculpture
  • The term Hellenistic generally is applied to the last phase of Greek art and is associated with the expansion of the Greek state under and after Alexander the Great.
Old Market Woman, 2nd century BCE

Patrons wanted more variety and even greater realism, as in this portrayal of an old woman.


Hellenistic – The Veiled Dancer

Classical – The Charioteer

  • Drapery in the Hellenistic period is particularly detailed and gives a sense of movement that was lacking in the classical period.
Winged Victory (Nike), 190 BCE

-Commemorates a victory in a sea battle.

-Nike as depicted descending from the sky to the victorious fleet of ships.

-dramatically draped garments showing what is underneath the fabric typical of Hellenistic art.

Sensuousness is stressed as clothing reveals rather than conceals the form of the body beneath
Venus de Milo, 130 and 100 BCE
  • Female nudes were much more in evident in the Hellenistic period.
  • Depicts Aphrodite-Greek goddess of love and beauty.
  • Originally painted and adorned with jewelry.
  • Sensuous juxtaposition of flesh and drapery. Erotic tension a Hellenistic concept.
Dying Gaul, 230 BC and 220 BCE

-roman copy in marble, originally in bronze

-made to celebrate a military victory

-copied many times


Much of ancient Greek painting has been lost due to looting and wars.

The different painting techniques are not well represented in historical documents. However we do know of several artists, and these artists were displayed in exhibits.

The selections of ancient Greek painting, and what we know about it is very limited.


Pitsa Panel, c. 530 BCE-Representation of an animal sacrifice scene in Corinth.-The only surviving panel paintings from Archaic Greece.-small painting on a wooden board.


As a result of the durable nature

of pottery, an archeological

record of over 100,000 items

from ancient Greece exists.


White Ground Amphora, late 6th century BCEThe paint was applied directly onto white clay.Typically used for grave offerings.Many feel that this technique is less visually appealing than the red and black figure vases.


Black Figure Amphora, c.540 BCEAt left Athena runs toward a man pursued by an armored giant, and at right Ares falls from another armored giant.


Red Figure Amphora, c.525 BCE-Reverse of black figured vases.-Inspired from the black figured vases.-Paint applied directly to vase rather than incised.-Increasing naturalism.