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Chapter 15. Strategies When Population Distributions are Not Normal: Data Transformations and Rank-Order Tests. Assumptions in the Standard Hypothesis-Testing Procedures. Populations follow a normal curve Populations have equal variances Ceiling and floor effects. Data Transformations.

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Presentation Transcript
chapter 15
Chapter 15

Strategies When Population Distributions are Not Normal:

Data Transformations and

Rank-Order Tests

assumptions in the standard hypothesis testing procedures
Assumptions in the Standard Hypothesis-Testing Procedures
  • Populations follow a normal curve
  • Populations have equal variances
  • Ceiling and floor effects
data transformations
Data Transformations
  • Data transformation
  • Square-root transformation
data transformations4
Data Transformations
  • Legitimacy of data transformations
  • Kinds of data transformations
    • Square root transformation
    • Log transformation
    • Inverse transformation
    • Arcsine transformation
rank order tests
Rank-Order Tests
  • Rank-order transformation
  • Rank-order tests
  • Nonparametric tests
  • Parametric tests
rank order tests6
Rank-Order Tests
  • Basic logic
  • The null hypothesis
  • Normal curve approximations
  • Using parametric tests with rank-transformed data
comparison of methods
Comparison of Methods
  • Advantages and disadvantages
  • Relative risk of Type I and Type II errors
controversies and recent development
Controversies and Recent Development
  • Computer-intensive methods
    • Randomization tests
    • Proposed alternative to parametric and nonparametric methods
    • Widely applicable
    • Unfamiliar to researchers
reporting in research articles
Reporting in Research Articles
  • Data transformations
    • Described just prior to analyses using them
  • Rank-order methods
    • Described much like any other kind of hypothesis test