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Chapter 15

Chapter 15. Who invaded Great Britain? Who were the Celts? Who were the Franks? What was the Battle of Tours? Who was Charlemagne? What was the Holy Roman Empire? What important roles did the church play in government? What influenced Western Europe?

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Chapter 15

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  1. Chapter 15 Who invaded Great Britain? Who were the Celts? Who were the Franks? What was the Battle of Tours? Who was Charlemagne? What was the Holy Roman Empire? What important roles did the church play in government? What influenced Western Europe? What did the Church and the king argue about?

  2. Section 1 • When ________ fell Western Europe divided • Visigoths in Spain, Ostrogoths in Italy • Roman culture began to decline • Rome pulled out of England to help fight the Germanic invaders • The ____________ and the ______________ invaded Britain • Pushed the people living there out…these were the Celts • The Celt fled to the north, west , and Ireland

  3. In 400’s A.D. the _____________ settled in what is now France • Clovis was their King • Muslims from North Africa conquered Spain • _______________ led the Franks against the Muslims to keep Europe Christian in the ____________________ stopping the Muslims from advancing in Europe • When Pepin died, the son of Charles Martel, his son Charles became king at age 29 • He invaded Germany and defeat the Saxons • Converted them to Christianity • Invaded Spain and regained the northeaster area from the Muslims • By 800 A.D. Charles had an empire • His conquests earned him the name ______________, or Charles the Great

  4. The pope was impressed with Charlemagne • Crowned him the new Roman Emperor • He set up courts ran by ____________ • Started a school for education: they studied-religion, Latin, music, literature, and arithmetic • When Charlemagne died his son took over and the empire fell apart • The kingdom was invaded by: • Muslims from the South • Magyars from the east, in Hungary • Vikings from Scandinavia, in Northern Europe • These raids destroyed the Frankish kingdoms • ___________ was a strong Frankish ruler • His territory of Germany and Northern Italy was known as the _________________________ • Most of its emperors were not powerful • The pope fought the plan of one single ruler and central government resisting the emperors’ forces

  5. The ________________ grew a new civilization in Western Europe • _______________ traveled to Ireland as a missionary • He inspired _________________ who wanted all of Europe to become Christians and sent out monks as _______________ • _______________ were important in Medieval Europe • Monks taught people, provided food, and rest for travelers • Monks wrote down copies of many important works • The Bible and other Roman and Greek writings.

  6. Leader of a monastery was an _______________ • Many were involved in politics serving as advisers to kings and acted as rulers of the lands near monasteries • The involvement of Church leaders caused argument over who was in charge • Kings wanted church leaders to obey them • The pope claimed he could crown kings • 1073 Gregory VII was elected pope • He wanted to stop nobles and kings from being involved with church affairs • Issued a decree forbidding kings from appointing high ranking Church officials • This angered Henry IV the Holy Roman Emperor

  7. The Pope ________________ Henry • Henry went to war and captured Rome and named a new pope • 1122 a new pope was elected and he and the king agreed that only the pope could choose bishops • Called the ____________________ • Innocent III, Catholic Church was very powerful…he controlled kings • In 1022 A.D. the __________________ was established. • The Pope could only appoint bishops to the church • The emperor could give them jobs in government • Under Innocent III the Catholic Church was at its height of power and influence in government

  8. Section 2 • What is feudalism? • How was a vassal linked to a lord? • What was another name for vassal? • What was the Manorial System? • What new agricultural improvements were created during the Middle Ages? • What rules did knights follow? • What was life like for peasants? • How did trade help develop new cities?

  9. ______________ , landowning nobles governed and protected the people in return for services • Center of each was a ______________, or fortress • Feudalism was based on ties of loyalty and duty among _____________ • ________________ : a noble who served a lord of higher rank, the lord protected them • “to keep faith and loyalty to you against all others” • Serving the lord’s army • A ________________ was land granted to a vassal

  10. Vassals were also known as ______________, warriors who fought on horseback • Up until A.D. 700, nobles mostly fought on foot, around A.D. 700 the stirrup was invented • They wore ________, or coats of mail, and carried swords and shields • Fiefs in the middle ages were called _________ • _____________ or peasants lived in the manor • To gain their freedom serfs could: • Run away • Lived in the town for more than a year • Buy their freedom

  11. Knight Video • Knight Video Part II

  12. Middle Ages farming improved to grow more crops: • Heavy wheeled plow with an iron blade • Horse collar • Water and wind mills…grinding grain, pumping water, cutting wood • Knights followed a _________________ • Center of a _______________ was a castle • Peasants lived in cottages with 1 or 2 rooms • _____________ worked all year in their fields • By 1100, ______________ made Europe safer

  13. Trade began to increase as life improved in Europe • Towns began to grow larger and wealthier from trade • The city of ________________ and Flanders • People ____________, or traded goods for other goods • As trade demand increase use for ________ rose • Merchants set up trading companies and banks to manage the sale of goods and use of money • Trade _________________ increased • Companies organized ________________ • Rise of towns and guilds create a new middle class in Medieval Europe • Middle Class people were not ____, ________, or ____

  14. "Life in the Middle Ages"

  15. Section 3 • Who united England into “Angleland”? • Who was William the Conqueror? • What was Henry II’s Common Law? • Why was the Magna Carta so important to England? • What were the Crusades? • How did the Crusades affect Europe?

  16. ______________________, or Alfred the Great united the Anglo-Saxons • He drove out the ___________ from England • ____________ ruled Normandy, he was a cousin of King Edward of England • After Edward’s death William and Harold Godwinson fought at the __________________ • William was crowned ______________________ • Henry II established a _______________ • Also he set up a body of ___________________ in the whole kingdom • A ______________ was used to determine a criminal’s guilt

  17. __________________ raised taxes in England and punished enemies without trials • Nobles resented these actions by the King and refused to obey him • Nobles met with King John in 1215 at Runnymeade and forced the king to sign the ______________________ • A document of rights, AKA: the Great Charter • It took away some of the king’s powers • Could not collect taxes with out the ___________ approval • Fair trials for Freemen by their peers • People have rights and limited government power

  18. Magna Carta Video

  19. The Crusades • The Crusades were launched by Europeans to capture Jerusalem and Palestine from the Muslims • The Byzantine Empire was attacked by the Muslims in 1071 • The empire didn’t have enough money to stop the Seljuk Turks • The Byzantine Emperor asked Pope Urban II for help • Pope Urban II sent the lords on a holy war to capture Jerusalem against the Turks • The First Crusade had begun

  20. Crusaders drove out the Muslims and created new states • Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli • Muslims fought back and captured Edessa • The Pope sent another crusade, the second, to regain Edessa • It failed • Saladin became ruler in Egypt • Declared war with the Muslims against Christians • He capture Jerusalem • Emperor Frederick, King Richard I of England, and Phillip II of France began the Third Crusade

  21. 1200 Pope Innocent III called for a Fourth Crusade • Crusades attacked Constantinople • Three days they burned and looted the city • Weakening the Byzantine Empire • Gradually Muslims regained lost territory from the Crusades • 1291 the last Christian city fell to the Muslim (200 years after the First Crusade) • Affect on Europe • Increased trade between Europe and the Middle East • Broke down feudalism

  22. Crusades Video • The Crusades: Crescent and the Cross

  23. Section 4 • What new Religious orders developed in the Middle Ages? • What role did religion play in society? • What was the Inquisition? • What new developments in Medieval culture developed during the Middle Ages?

  24. New Religious Orders • Cistercian was founded in 1098 • Most Famous-Bernard of Clairvaux by helping promote the Second Crusade • Religious Convents for Women • Hildegard of Bingen • Order of the Friars (brothers) • Francis of Assisi-first order of friars who became Franciscans • Daily life in Medieval Europe revolved around the Catholic Church • mass: Catholic Worship service

  25. Inquisition-Church court in 1233 by the pope • Try accused members of heresy • Architecture of the Middle Ages showed religious importance in life and society • Romansque Churches • Gothic Cathedrals • Universities-Bologna • Oxford University was founded in 1231 in England • Scholasticism: changed to theology/ a new way of thinking • Thomas Aquinas: scholasticism’s greatest champion • Vernacular: local language • Writings began to be written in vernacular

  26. Section 5 • Why was the Hundred Years War fought? • Who was Joan of Arc? • Who won the Hundred Years War? • What was the Black Death? • How far did it spread?

  27. The Hundred Years War was fought between the France and England (1337-1453) • French Kings wanted to drive England out of Normandy • The first battle was the Battle of Crecy • English won and controlled Northern France • Joan of Arc was a French peasant girl • She helped the French win the Battle of Orleans in 1429 • She was captured by the English • Given to the Inquisition and burned at the stake • The French defeated the English in 1453

  28. Black Death Video

  29. Rise of Early Russia • What was Kiev Rus? • How did czars come to exist?

  30. Slavs called their Viking rulers Rus • Oleg started a Rus state in the city of Kiev • This created the Kiev Rus • It attracted missionaries, and Vladimir became an Eastern Orthodox Christian • Claimed his people were Eastern Orthodox • The Mongols in about 1240 swept in and conquered the Kievan Rus • Slavs recovered from damages by the Mongols • City of Moscow grew as a major trade city • Moscow became the central city for the Russian Eastern Orthodox Church

  31. 1462 Ivan III became duke of Kiev • He began to call himself czar • Czar is short for Caesar • When Ivan IV died the Russians were building a large empire

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