CH 1 TRANSPORTATIONENGINEERING INTRODUCTION
1.1 Transportation and Transportation Engineering 1.2 Transportation Engineering 1.3 Transportation System CHAPTER OUTLINE
KEY TERMS • transportation engineering [交通工程]：the application of scientific principles to the planning, design, operation, and management of transportation systems. • transportation planning[交通计划]：an act of laying out a transportation system aiming to predict the needs/demands for a particular service.
ITS( intelligent transportation systems )[智能交通系统]：a system providing the opportunity to integrate travelers, vehicles and infrastructure into a comprehensive system through a range of technologies.
IMS-Incident Management Systems [事故管理系统]:to reduce the effects of incident-related congestion by decreasing the time to detect incidents, the time for responding vehicles to arrive, and the time required for traffic to return to normal conditions, which makes use of a variety of surveillance technologies, often shared with freeway and arterial management systems, as well as enhanced communications and other technologies that facilitate coordinated response to incidents.
SPECIAL WORDS • mph: miles per hour [速度单位：英里/小时] • MOEs: measures of effectiveness [效力度量] • MOCs: measures of costs [成本度量] • railroad System Engineering [铁路系统工程] • civil Engineering [土木工程] • structural engineering [结构工程] • traffic signal [交通信号] • pipeline [管道] • highway [公路]
freeway [高速公路] • beltway [环形公路] • sea-lane [航路] • ubiquity [普遍性、通达性] • mobility [机动性] • geometric design [几何设计] • traffic congestion [交通拥堵] • transportation facility [交通设施] • transportation demand [交通需求]
1.1 Transportation and Transportation Engineering • Definitions of Transportation Transportation is everything involved in moving either the person or goods from the origin to the destination. Consider the businessman’s trip depicted in Figure 1.1.
Transit or Taxi Airport Departure Walking Home Origin Stop Destination Automobile Hotel Airplane Walking Bus to Hotel Airport Arrival Bus Stop Figure 1.1 A businessman’s trip
What Is Transportation Engineering? Transportation engineering is the application of the principles of engineering, planning, analysis, and design to the disciplines comprising transportation: its vehicles, its physical infrastructure, safety in travel, environmental impacts, and energy usage. It involves “hard” physical sciences and “soft” sciences
Transportation Engineering “hard” : the engineer evaluates pavements, geometric design, vehicle design, environmental effects, and the like. “soft” : behavior, welfare economics, urban planning, and political science.
Transportation engineering involves working with the public, with industry, with citizens’ groups, with elected officials, and with employees of the agencies of local, state, and federal governments. • As commonly used, however, the term transportation engineering refers to a subspecialty of civil engineering.
1 2 3 to provide general information about the practice of transportation engineering for readers, mostly students, who will practice other civil engineering specialties to prepare students who will practice in transportation related jobs immediately upon graduation to provide the necessary background for students who wish to pursue graduate studies in transportation engineering Any such course needs to serve at least three purposes:
Transportation and People’s Life • Good transportation provides for the safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods. • Everybody is involved with transportation in so great a variety of ways that a mere listing of these ways would take us by surprise.
Progress in Transportation (1) Historical Development of Transportation • The principles of transportation engineering have been evolving over many millennia. • Human beings are known to have laid out and used convenient routes as early as 30,000 B.C. • Vehicles (and pseudo vehicles) have been in use since human beings learned to walk. • The entire picture for transportation changed in 1885 with Daimler and Benz’s introduction of the gasoline-powered internal-combustion engine.
Some of the most outstanding technological developments in transportation have occurred in the preceding 200 years: • The first pipelines in the United States were introduced in 1861. • First railroad opened in 1825. • The internal-combustion engine was invented in 1866 • The first automobile was produced in 1886 • The Wright brothers flew the first heavier-than-air machine in 1903 • The first diesel electric locomotive was introduced in 1921
Lindbergh flew over the Atlantic Ocean to Europe in 1927 • The first diesel engine buses were used in 1938 • The first limited-access highway in the United States (the Pennsylvania Turn-pike) opened in 1940 • The Interstate Highway system was initiated in 1950 • The first commercial jet appeared in 1958 • Astronauts landed on the moon in 1969
The use of computers and automation in transportation grew dramatically through the 1960s and 1970s and continues to grow unabated • Microcomputers have revolutionized our capabilities to run programs since the 1980s and such capabilities have helped us to examine alternatives quickly and efficiently
(2) Important Role of Technology in Transportation • The fantastic spur in technology promotes the world on the upgrade, and expedites the evolution of transportation. • The acceleration of technology itself is frequently dramatized by a brief account of the progress in transportation.
(3) Development of Transportation Technologies ① ITS • The application of new technologies including ITS (intelligent transportation systems ) across the world reveals a new trend • In the past 10 years, there has been a 30% increase in traffic.
② National Intermodal Transportation System • To develop a National Intermodal Transportation System has become a basic policy in many advanced countries • The provisions of the act reflect these important policy goals.
1.2 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING Transportation engineering will appeal to those who are attracted to public service and to opportunities to wrestle with challenging social problems and contribute to their solutions.
1.2.1 The Field of Transportation Engineering • The desires of people to move and their need for goods create the demand for transportation. • Transportation engineering is a multidisciplinary field drawing on more established disciplines to provide its basic framework, such as economics, geography, and statistics
1.2.2 Definition of Transportation Engineering • The Institute of Transportation Engineers (1987) defines : the application of technological and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation, and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods
Traffic engineering defines: that phase of transportation engineering which deals with planning, geometric design, and traffic operations of roads, streets, and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands, and relationships with other modes of transportation
1.2.3 The Practice of Transportation Engineering • Transportation engineering involves a diversity of basic activities performed by such specialists as policymakers, managers, planners, engineers, and evaluators.
1.2.4 The Nature of Transportation Engineering • Transportation engineering is a multidisciplinary area of study and a comparatively new profession that has acquired theoretical underpinnings, methodological tools, and a vast area of public and private involvement.
Because of the multidisciplinary content of transportation engineering , training transportation engineers and plannersuse the following fields of knowledge : economics geography operations research regional planning sociology psychology probability statistics customary analytical tools of engineering
Transportation Planning Traffic Engineering Involvement Geometric design Pavement Design Soil mechanics Breadth of transportation engineering soft Figure 1.2 Interdisciplinary breadth and depth of transportation engineering Planning and architecture Civil Engineering System Engineering Math and Statistics Economics Social Sciences Physical Sciences hard
1.2.5 Civil Engineering Involvement in Transportation • Transportation engineering is more commonly used or refer to a subspecialty of civil engineering , which includes both physical civil engineering and systems engineering . • Historically, the primary involvement of civil engineers in transportation has been in the provision of physical facilities and the devising of operating strategies for them.
Most civil engineering activity related to the provision of physical facilities is what might be called physical civil engineering; • On the other hand, most civil engineering activity related to planning and operation of the transportation system, is what might be called systems engineering.
1.3 TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM • Transportation is typically systematic engineering, a set of interrelated parts. • The transportation system is organized around society’s need to provide an adequate service and involves broad interaction with many other disciplines. • The goals of the transportation system are primarily economic; the most important constraints it faces are environmental.
1.3.1 Scope and Functional Organization of transportation system • Transportation is one of the major functional systems of modern society. • The transportation system is a functional system in the context of society as a whole, and is a major functional system.
The economic scope of the transportation system is indicated by the fact that in 1998, transportation accounted for 11.2 percent of the gross domestic product and 19 percent of the average household expenditures in the United States.
The transportation system is a major source of resource consumption and environmental impact. • Transportation accounts for almost two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States and is a major contributor to environmental problems such as air pollution, noise, and destruction of natural habitats.
Components • Physical facilities, including streets, roads, and highways; railroads, airports, sea and river ports pipelines, and canals • Fleets of vehicles, vessels, and aircraft • Operating bases and facilities, including vehicle maintenance facilities and office space • Organizations • Operating strategies, including vehicle routing scheduling, and traffic control
FAA (Facility-oriented organization) Safety regulation Airport traffic control Funding MPOs (Facility-oriented organization) Airtines (Operating Organization) Funding planning Airport Authorities (Facility-oriented organization) Own Tenant operations Terminal (ticking, etc.) Tower Maintenance Facilities (Operating bases) Airport (Physical Facilities) Operate Determine Runways Taxiways Use Traffic control Own/operate Aircraft (Fleets) Terminal area and en route traffic control Route Structure Schedule Operating politics (Operating strategies) Operating plans Figure 1.3 Interrelationship of functional components of a commercial air transportation system
Figure 1.3 illustrates the ways in which the functional components of the commercial air transportation system are interrelated.
1.3.2 The Systems Approach • The systems approach has been applied successfully in transportation engineering and represents a broad-based and systemic ways and means and is a problem-solving philosophy used particularly to solve complex problems. • System analysis is the application of the scientific method to the solution of complex problems and the act of studying business or industrial operations to plan ways of carrying them out, improving them etc.
1.3.3 Overview of Transportation Systems Characteristics • Elements of Transportation systems: • Links • Vehicles • Terminals • Management and labor
Links the roadways or tracks connecting two or more points. Pipes, beltways, sea-lanes, and airways can also be considered as links • Vehicles the means of moving people and goods from one node to another along a link. Motorcars, buses, ships, airplanes, belts, and cables are examples
Terminals the nodes where travel and shipment begins or ends. Parking garages, off-street parking lots, loading docks, bus stops, airports, and bus terminals are examples • Management and labor the people, who construct, operate, manage, and maintain the links, vehicles, and terminals
Relations among the elements, human and environment These four elements interact with human beings, as users or nonusers of the system, and also with the environment. The behavior of the physical, human, and environmental subsystems is highly complex because it involves interaction of people as drivers, riders, and non-riders, using vehicles of differing character and performance on links with diverse vehicle characteristics in a myriad of environmental conditions.
Categories of human behavior affected by transportation • Locomotion (passengers, pedestrians) • Activities (e.g., vehicle control, maintenance, community life) • Feelings (e.g., comfort, convenience, enjoyment, stress, likes, dislikes) • Manipulation (e.g., modal choice, route selection, vehicle purchase)
Health and safety (e.g., accidents, disabilities, fatigue) • Social interaction (e.g., privacy, territoriality, conflict, imitation) • Motivation (positive or aversive consequences, potentiation) • Learning (e.g., operator training, driver education, merchandising) • Perception (e.g., images, mapping, sensory thresholds)
Physical environment impacting human behavior • Spatial organization: This dimension often includes the shape, scale, definition, bounding surfaces, internal organization of objects and society, and connections to other spaces and settings. Indeed, this is the dimension that most people are referring to when they talk about the physical environment.
Circulation and movement: This property includes people, goods, and objects used for their movement----cars, trains, highways, and rails--and also the forms of regulating them, such as corridors, portals, turnstiles, and open spaces.
Communication: Both explicit and implicit signals, signs or symbols communication, required behavior, responses, and meanings are covered by this dimension; in essence, these are the properties of the environment that give users information and ideas.