Introduction to Engineering Dr. Chuck Lockert Gwinnett School of Math Science and Technology
Objectives • The student will be able to: • Explain the history of engineering • Define Engineering
ABET Defines Engineering as: • The profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgment to develop ways to use, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind. • In simple language this means what to you?
Where Have We Been and Where are We Going? • To understand where we are going, we need to understand where we have been. • Let us take a quick look at the history of engineering.
Who Are Our Engineering Forefathers? Mesopotamian Engineers (4000-2000 B.C.) Egyptian Engineers (2700-2500 B.C.) Greek Engineers (400 B.C.) Roman Engineers (300 B.C.) Asian Engineers (200 B.C.) European Engineers (1000 A.D. and beyond)
Mesopotamian Engineers • Mesopotamian is the name given to the land between the two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris. • The First canals were built by the Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia. • The Mesopotamian engineers made the first advances in bucket hoist for lifting water.
Mesopotamian Engineers • The Assyrians developed fierce military machines like iron weapons and wagons. • The modern day four wheeled vehicle owes its beginning to the efforts of the Assyrian-Mesopotamian engineers.
Mesopotamian Engineers • The King of Assyrians built an aqueduct and paved streets. • Mesopotamian engineers built the oldest stone bridge attributed to the Chaldeans. • Ziggurats were massive stepped cult platforms found in certain Mesopotamian sanctuaries.
Mesopotamian Engineers • The materials used to build a Mesopotamian house were the same as those used today: mud (clay) brick, mud plaster and wooden doors, which were all naturally available around the city.
Review Question • Engineers concentrate on science and ignore mathematics during design. T(A)/F(B) • Mesopotamians used what building material? • A. Granite B. Steel • C. Clay Brick D. Asphalt
Egyptian Engineers • Built with great perfection and accuracy. • Relied on physical labor and primitive tools. • Many structures were made from limestone blocks. • Took many years to complete.
Egyptian Engineers • Largest pyramid constructed is the Great Pyramid of Giza at 481 feet. • Took 20 years to build, with 20,000 workers. • Consists of 2,400,000 stones, each weighing more than 2 tons. • Spanned a distance of 13 acres of land.
Greek Engineers • Greece was similar to Egypt and Mesopotamia. • The connection between pure science and engineering was introduced by the Greeks. • Greek engineers were involved in projects such as drainage and tunnels.
Greek Engineers • The Greeks gave us the science of hydrostatics and developed the theory of mechanical advantage • They were involved in projects such as digging a canal across the isthmus of Corinth • Engineers invented things such as a mechanical bird that flew by compressed air and the screw fastener
Roman Engineers • Romans contributed much to engineering and science that we are still using day. • Today’s Civil Engineers descended from Roman engineers’ great works such as roads, bridges, public buildings, aqueducts, and sewers. • In all of the work Romans did, the most significant advances of Roman engineers and architects was in building houses.
Roman Engineers • Romans were the first to discover cement, which we use today for houses and bridges. Roman engineers made extensive use of the water wheel. Many wheel-shaped devices were use for hoisting water, and there were many improvements over time. The water-mills could be used to supply to the entire city.
Review Questions • Water wheels could supply a whole city’s water needs. T(A)or F(B) • The most significant advances made by Roman engineers was with bridges. T or F • Romans were the first to discover • A. Asphalt B. Clay Brick • C. Cement D. Iron
Roman Engineers Other significant inventions during Roman Imperia period were trusses and pendentive. • Trusses • Pendentive • Sewer
The Oriental Engineers • Oriental engineers built massive structures often as temples for religious uses. • Chinese engineers had distinctive architecture such as buildings with curved roofs.
The Oriental Engineers • Chinese engineers built hanging bridges with bamboo cables. • They built canals for irrigation purposes. • Great Walls for protection from their enemies
The Oriental Engineers • It is believed that the Chinese also built the wheelbarrow. • The Chinese, like many ancient engineers, improved upon existing inventions. • The Chinese improved the clock by using the escapement, a mechanism that made it possible to control the speed of the clock.
Review Questions • Chinese engineers were know for their flat roofs. T or F • Chinese invented which of the following? • A. Wheelbarrow B. Cart • C. Cement D. Clock • Chinese were known for their small but detailed structures. T or F
The European Engineers • Craftsmen worked through rule of thumb after learning their trade through a system of apprenticeship. • Concentrated interests in the physical sciences, science of statistics and forces in load bearing walls. • Advances: flying machine, increase in use of water power, water powered hammer, and draw plates for drawing wire were all introduced.
The European Engineers • Advancements in structural forms and trusses used in building. • Allowed for building of large cathedrals • Notre Dame de Paris “Our Lady of Paris” was built from 1160-1345 Colored glass and sheer greatness of construction were used to resemble the light and greatness of God. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
The European Engineers • Power Machinery: water powered sawmills and windmills • Wheeled Traffic: the first omnibus capable of carrying up to sixty passengers appeared around the 18th century. • Hydraulics Engineering: Canal building was more advanced than that of the Roman Engineers
The European Engineers • Ship Building: Greatly improved ships to help lead to the age of exploration. • Development in the Middle Ages favored “round ships", with a broad beam and heavily curved at both ends. • Renaissance: Engineering schools started to appear as well as defined engineering disciplines.
Review Questions • Europe had the first engineering students. T/F • European engineers favored the wide flat bottom ship. T/F • Europeans avoided load bearing walls because they were unsafe. T/F
Secrets of the Success of Ancient Engineers • Made use of simple instruments and devices. • Unlimited manpower and the ability to organize it. • Infinite Patience.
Let’s Review • What is Engineering? • Who were some of the historical engineers?
Resources • The following are a list of excellent reference sources which contain information on engineering disasters or failures and their consequences: • "Breakdown: Deadly Technological Disasters", by Neil Schlager, Visible Ink Press, Detroit, 1995 • "Set Phasers on Stun", by Steven Casey, Aegean Publishing Co., Santa Barbara, 1993 • "To Engineer is Human", by Henry Petroski, Vintage Books, New York, 1992 • "Design Paradigms : Case Histories of Error and Judgment in Engineering", by Henry Petroski, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994 • "Civil Engineering Practice: Engineering Success by Analysis of Failure", by David D.A. Piesold, McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, 1991 • "When Technology Fails: Significant Technological Disasters, Accidents, and Failures of the Twentieth Century", by Neil Schlager (Editor), Nell Y. Schlager (Editor), Gale Group, New York, 1994 • "Inviting Disaster: Lessons From the Edge of Technology", by James R. Chiles, Harper Business, New York, 2002