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THE PAST - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE PAST
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  1. THEPAST

  2. SPUTNIK • Sputnik – Oct 4, 1957. 1st satellite. 20 MHz beacon. 47 years ago. • Oscar 1 – Dec 12, 1961. 1st amateur satellite • My satellite experience began in Nov 1988.

  3. To date 51 amateur satellites have been launched. Really amazing achievement. Overcome licensing, frequency allocations (WARC 1979), technical challenges, environmental testing, funding, launch opportunities. International involvement. Amateur satellites were 1st to make ground to satellite to satellite to ground communication. Validated concept for using satellites for search and rescue. 1st microsats. Validated topside GPS. ACHIEVEMENTS

  4. MILESTONES • Oscar 1 – 1st amateur satellite. Dec. 12th. 1961. 2m beacon, battery powered • Oscar III – Mar. 1965. First transponder. 50 KHz BW 146 MHz up, 144 MHz down. 1st use of solar cells. Only lasted 2 weeks but 100 amateurs got on. • Oscar 5 – Jan. 23 1970. Australian. Magnetic attitude stabilization. Controlled by uplink commands. 29 and 144 MHz beacons. Battery powered.

  5. MORE MILESTONES • Oscar 6 – Oct 15, 1972. Long lifetime. Sophisticated command and telemetry. 29 MHz down, 146 MHz up. 100 KHz BW. Lifespan 4.5 years Problem – Satellite control system subject internally generated noise. Solution – Automated commands from ground stations around the world. Larry Kayser one of the first to tackle the problem.

  6. MORE MILESTONES • Oscar 7 – Nov 15, 1974. 1st time two satellites in orbit. Two transponders mode A & B. Outstanding performance. Proved with simple stations communication 200 to 4500 miles. 2m and 70cm beacons built in Canada? Died mid 1981 due shorted cell? Reborn June 22, 2002. • Oscar 8 – Mar. 5, 1978. Mode A and Japanese mode J transponders. Died 1983. • Oscar – 10. June 16, 1983. 1st Phase 3, high elliptical orbit. Very large footprint and window of many hours. Mode B and L transponders. IHU died end 1986. But worked intermittently into late 90’s. • Oscar 13 – June 15, 1988. Similar to AO-10 but also had 70 cm uplink and 2.4 GHz downlink. Burnt up in the atmosphere 23 Nov. 1996.

  7. MOREMILESTONES • AO-40. 3rd High Orbit Transponder • Launched Nov. 16 2000. Problems occurred after orbit transfer motor fired. • Operational May 5, 2001 (I made 14 QSO’s on that 1st orbit on both U/S and L/S. I and KB8VAO made the first L/L/S QSO on AO-40). • 2m, 70cm, 2x23cm and 13cm uplinks OK • 13cm, 24GHz down OK • Ceased operating Nov 24 2003

  8. THE PRESENT

  9. AMATEUR SATELLITES Number and Status Constantly Changing

  10. AMATEUR SATELLITES IN ORBIT • Amsat Weekly Satellite Report Currently Lists • 5 Operational Analog • 1 Semi Operational Analog • 1 Operational Digital • 3 Semi Operational Digital

  11. AMATEUR SATELLITE TYPES • Analogue FM Single Channel (cross band repeater) • Analog Transponder -SSB/CW/SSTV/DIGITAL • Digital • ISS – CB repeater - astronaut

  12. SATTELITE ORBITS • Low Earth Orbit - LEO • High Altitude Elliptical Orbit

  13. LEO ORBIT – 1000 Kilometers Nominal

  14. HIGH ELLIPTICAL ORBIT <-----------60 k ------------> E s

  15. SATELLITE COMMUNICATION • Operate Cross Band • Up on one band - Down on another • Analog operation FULL DUPLEX

  16. TRANSPONDER(Inverting) Beacon 435.795 +10 Down RX 435.800 435.850 435.900 - 10 Up TX 146.000 145.900 145.950 Zero Doppler

  17. ANALOG SATELLITES • TRANSPONDER - 2 • FM REPEATER + ISS - 4

  18. LEO ANALOG TRANSPONDER SATELLITES • FO-29 up 145.900 – 146.000 down 435.800 – 435.900 • AO-7 (semi operational) up 145.850 – 145.950 down 29.400 – 29.500 or up 432.125 – 432.175 down 145.975 – 145.925

  19. LEO ANALOG FM SATELITES • AO-27 up 145.850 down 436.795 • SO-50 up 145.850 down 436.795 67.0 Hz & 74.4 Hz • AO-51 up 145.920 down 435.300 67.0 Hz • ISS up 437.800 down 145.800

  20. AO-51

  21. AO-51 RF SUBSYSTEMS • Receivers • Four miniature VHF FM receivers (<40 mW and <50 gm each). • Each receiver has 2-channel capability. • Sensitivity is -121dbm for 12db SINAD. • Transmitters • Two UHF FM transmitters that can be operated simultaneously. • 7-12 watts output each. • Frequency agile in 20 or 35 KHz steps, tunable over about 20 MHz. • Wideband Receiver • All-mode, “DC to Light”. Performance limited by broadband antenna.

  22. AO-51 RF SUBSYSTEMS • Antennas. • VHF 18” whip on top. • UHF Turnstile on bottom. Currently LHCP. • L + S band “open sleeve” antenna on the bottom. • Broadband HF/VHF/UHF 18” whip on bottom. • Link Budget • Tx’s adjustable from 1 to 12 Watts with max efficiency at 8 Watts. • Modulation is GMSK at any speed from 300 to 56K baud. • Antenna gains average about 0dbi. (-10dbi to +2dbi). • VHF antenna feeds a BPF with 1.5db loss, then an LNA with 1db NF. Thus, overall Rx performance is -121 dbm for 12db SINAD.

  23. AO-51 TX POWER

  24. AO-51 FOOTPRINT

  25. AO-51 VISIBILITY

  26. THEFUTURE

  27. NEW AMATEUR SATELLITES • Unisat-3 (University of Rome) • Saudisat-2 (Saudi Arabia) • VUSAT (India) • PHASE 3-E (Germany) • AMSAT-NA EAGLE

  28. UNISAT-3 & SAUDISAT-2 • Little info available – both scheduled to go up on same rocket as ECHO on June 29. • UNISAT-3 microsat v/u fm transponder • SAUDISAT-2 copy of successful AO-50 ?

  29. VUSAT -India • LEO orbit • 63 cm x 63 cm x 55 cm • Solar panels on 4 sides • Control by single microprocessor • 2 mode B transponders. Indian, Dutch • 60 KHz BW • Uplink- 10 watts into 12-18 dbi ant. • Downlink - antenna gain 16 dbi. • Missed launch, Oct 2003 due deviations in performance under thermo vacuum tests. • Last info: Launch this month.

  30. PHASE 3-E -Germany • Launch end 2004 to mid 2005 • Work in full progress • Highly elliptical orbit. Perigee 1000 km. Apogee 36000 km. Inclination 63 degrees • RX- 70 cm, 23 cm. (2m, 13cm & 5.6 GHz) ? • TX – 2m, 13cm. (70cm, 10.45GHz) ? • Linear transponder 100 KHz BW • Power 50 w PEP • LEILA

  31. AMSAT OSCAR-Eagle . • “Eagle” is a new HEO satellite being developed by AMSAT-NA.

  32. AMSAT EAGLE

  33. EAGLE – AMSAT NA • Launch 2006? • Highly elliptical geostationary orbit • Weight 100 Kg. • Power consumption 100w • Communication: 2m,70cm,1.2, 2.4 and 5.4 GHz • Cost: $600k + launch

  34. MORE FUTURE SATELLITES • IARU Satellite Frequency Coordinator lists over 20 microsats and cubsats for which frequencies have been assigned. • Launch dates this year and next. • About half are US university projects. Rest are mostly other country university projects. • About half have transponders. U/V or V/U. FM, Digital and Linear. Rest telemetry only. • Lifetimes: Few weeks to 2 or 3 years.

  35. VE3NPC ANTENNA ARRAY