Henry VIII (1509-1547) • Tudor King • Catholic turned Protestant • Catholic • Wife: Catherine of Aragon • Daughter: Mary I (Bloody) • Protestant • Wife: Anne Boleyn • Daughter: Elizabeth I • Wife Jane Seymour • Son: Edward VI • 3 More wives followed • All 3 children served on the throne of England
King Edward IV (1547-1553) • Son of Henry VIII from Jane Seymour • Protestant • First Heir to throne after Henry VIII
Queen Mary I - Bloody Mary (1553-1558) • Restored Catholicism • Married Philip II, Son of Charles V of Spain • Persecuted Protestants
Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) • The “Virgin Queen” never marries • But “marries England” • Protestant - Anglican • Defeats Catholic Philip II and the Spanish Armada • Passes • Act of Uniformity • Act of Supremacy • Executes her cousin, Mary Queen of Scots (Catholic) • Needs $, Joint-stock co.
Mary Queen of Scots (1542-1567) Fought against John Knox (Presbyterian) Roman Catholic Conspired against Elizabeth, though she was Elizabeth’s cousin Executed by Elizabeth The Reformation in England
James VI Becomes James I (1603-1625) • Son of Mary Stuart, only relative to Elizabeth able to be heir • Believed in “Divine Right of Kings” • Clashes with Parliament • He thought he was above asking parliament for $ • Absolute Ruler • Puritans again asked for reform • Like Elizabeth, Church is Monarch’s business, not parliament
Charles I (1625-1649) • Son of James I • “Divine Right” • Forced to sign “Petition of Right” • Dissolved Parliament and avoided them for 11 years • Religion finally led to Civil War • Archbishop William Laud (Scots must follow Church of England) • Charles needed $ to fight Scots, so he had to call Parliament • Parliament passed laws to limit kings powers • Charles stormed parliament with soldiers • England divided!
Puritan Revolution • Cavaliers v Roundheads • Roundheads win and try Charles I for treason • He is convicted and beheaded
Cromwell the Military Dictator • 1649-1658 • First constitution in a European Nation • Claimed to be a Republic • No merrymaking! • Led massacre in Ireland when they attempted to gain freedom • The English wanted a King again!
Restoration Monarchy Charles II • Son of Charles I • NO Divine Right • Theater, Arts & Merrymaking restored • Habeas Corpus • Argument over religion • Rise of political parties • Whigs (Against James II) • Tories (For James II) James II • Son of Charles I • Claimed Divine Right • Catholic (even Tories abandoned him) • Due to fear that he would enforce Catholicism as the new state religion– Whigs and Tories planned to replace James
The Glorious Revolution • A Bloodless Transition of Power • William & Mary • William of Orange (Protestant prince of the Netherlands) • Mary (Protestant daughter from James II’s first wife) • Compromise with Parliament for Limited Monarchy • English Bill of Rights • No suspending parliament’s laws • No taxes without parliament’s approval • Freedom of speech for parliamentarians • No standing army in time of peace • No excessive bail
Early Enlightenment: Philosophers Thomas Hobbes • Influence: Beheading of Charles I • Nature of Man: Evil, Stupid, Self-serving • Government: Absolute Monarch • Author of: Leviathan John Locke • Influence: Glorious Revolution • Nature of Man: Innately good and capable of reason • Government: Democracy • Thomas Jefferson