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The Civil War & Reconstruction. Disagreement over future of Slavery States’ rights over centralized Federal power Breakdown in party politics Cultural and economic differences b/w North and South. Causes of the Civil War.

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causes of the civil war

Disagreement over future of Slavery

States’ rights over centralized Federal power

Breakdown in party politics

Cultural and economic differences b/w North and South

Causes of the Civil War
the south secedes

Dec. 20, 1860-Feb. 1, 1861: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas

February 1, 1861: Delegates from 7 seceded states meet in Montgomery, AL and draft the Constitution of the Confederate States of America (CSA)

February 18, 1861: CSA elect Jefferson Davis of Miss. as president

April-May 1861: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas secede

7 of 8 American military colleges located in South, CSA assembles army

North has naval superiority

April 1861: Confederate forces fire on U.S. Fort Sumter in S. Carolina

Union sends ships to blockade southern ports on Atlantic Ocean, gun boats down the Mississippi River to divide the South in two

The South Secedes
key battles

Battle of Bull Run: USA begins well, but CSA pulls out win

    • Lincoln realizes USA needs a better trained army
  • 1862: Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sends USA ships down Tennessee and Cumberland rivers splitting Kentucky and W. Tenn. from rest of South
  • Battle of Antietam: Union victory in Virginia, bloodiest day in US history
    • British decide to wait and see whether to recognize the CSA as a nation-state
  • Vicksburg: fighting lasted for two months, last CSA port on Miss. R. falls
  • Gettysburg: CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee moves into Pennsylvania after CSA victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville
    • Pickett’s Charge: 7,000 CSA troops die in half an hour, Union defenses hold
    • British decide not to recognize the CSA
  • US Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman begins “March to the Sea” through GA
    • Pillages, scorched earth tactics, destroys railroads, warehouses, mills, and factories
Key Battles
emancipation proclamation

Before war, Democrats oppose ending slavery, Republicans divided

As death toll rises, North begins to favor ending slavery to punish South

September 22, 1862: Lincoln issues proclamation saying all slaves in states at war with the Union to be freed after January 1, 1863

War now seen not as war to preserve Union, but as war of liberation

Emancipation Proclamation
war ends

April 9, 1865: CSA Gen. Lee surrenders Appomattox Court House, VA

    • U.S. Grant promises USA will not prosecute CSA soldiers
    • Allows CSA soldiers to return home in peace
  • April 14, 1865: President Lincoln assassinated, shot by actor John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C.
  • Civil War referred to as first modern war
    • Civilian army fights majority of war, not professional soldiers
    • Cone shaped bullets allow for more accuracy
    • Trenches and barricades protect soldiers
    • War of Attrition: wear down the other side
    • Modern war + old tactics/strategies= much blood/death
War Ends

Reconstruction: plan to readmit Southern states into the Union

  • Lincoln Plan: general amnesty to Southerners who take loyalty oath, some government officials and military officers not included
  • Radical Republican Plan: divides South into five military districts, gets rid of Lincoln Plan now favored by President Andrew Johnson
  • When President Johnson removed Sec. of War without Senate approval, the Senate shows its displeasure with Johnson by impeaching him
  • Reconstruction Amendments:
    • Amendment XIII: Bans slavery in United States
    • Amendment XIV: All people born in the USA are citizens
    • Amendment XV: Male citizens of USA cannot be denied right to vote for race, prior slavery
the reconstruction south

1870: All former CSA states readmitted to USA

  • The Freedman’s Bureau helps former slaves
  • Carpetbaggers: Northerners who moved to south to make money or run gov.
  • Scalawags: Southerners who worked with Northern Republicans in South
  • Republicans elected across the South, many African-Americans elected
  • 1869: U.S. Grant elected president
  • 1870s: Democrats begin to regain power in South
  • 1876 Presidential Election too close to call, some votes questioned
    • Compromise of 1877: Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes given victory in exchange for pull out of federal troops from South
  • After Reconstruction, extreme white supremacist groups terrorize the South trying to “restore racial order”, Democrats pass “Black Codes” to weaken rights of African-American citizens.
The Reconstruction south