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ERGONOMIC & ACCIDENT. Dr. Ardini S Raksanagara,dr.,MPH. Public Health Department Faculty of Medicine. SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES. The student will be able : to recognize accident in the workplace environment (C2) to understand ergonomic term (C3). References.

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ergonomic accident


Dr. Ardini S Raksanagara,dr.,MPH.

Public Health Department

Faculty of Medicine

specific learning objectives

The student will be able :

  • to recognize accident in the workplace environment (C2)
  • to understand ergonomic term (C3)
  • Levy & Wegman, Occupational Health, Recognizing and Preventing Work Related Disease. Third Edition. Little Broan and Company, Boston / NewYork/Toronto/London,2006. Chapter : 11, 22
  • Joseph LaDou J, ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2nd edition. Stamford: Appleton & Lange, 2004.Chapter : 12
  • Rosenstock, Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Second Edition, Saunders, 2005. Chapter : 31
  • every year, American workers suffer an estimated

·10 million injuries

·30 million separate bouts of illness

·1 million eye injuries

·400,000 fractures

·21,000 amputations

·more than 2 million laceration severe

enough to require medical treatment

·20,000 and 75,000 deaths

·2 million disabled

Each day in US an average of 9,000 workers sustain disabling injuries on the job,

approximately 16 workers die from workplace injury

  • In 2000, 29.5 million people were treated for injuries in department in the US
  • More than 148,000 people hospitalized
  • Definition :

- the science of designing the workplace and the job to fit the worker

- the study and design of the working situation from the standpoint of the worker

  • the study of humans at work to understand the complex interrelationships among people, their work environment, job demands and work methods
  • human factors engineering
  • The objective of ergonomics is to provide a satisfactory environment in which the worker can undertake the task required without undue physical or mental strain.
  • A basic principle of ergonomics is that all work activities cause some level of physical and mental stress.
The example of ergonomic problem :

- workers are expected to operate machines with poor control, sited at

inappropriate heights or distances, in uncomfortable environment

  • Evaluate work demands and the corresponding abilities of people to react and cope
occupational ergonomist
Occupational ergonomist
  • The goal  is to maintain a safe work environment by designing facilities, furniture, machines, tools, and job demands to be compatible with workers’ attributes, such as size, strength, aerobic capacity
  • A successful ergonomics program should simultaneously improve health and enhance productivity
the failure to apply ergonomics effectively in the workplace may result in the following losses
The failure to apply ergonomics effectively in the workplace may result in the following losses :

·      Lower production quantity and quality

·      Increased absenteeism and labor turnover

·      Increased accidents and injuries

·      Increased medical and material costs

·      Reduced ability to deal with emergencies

indicator of potential ergonomic problems in the workplace
Indicator of Potential ergonomic problems in the workplace :
  •        Increase in accidents or injuries
  •        Absenteeism

        Turnover of employees

  •        Poor product quality
  •       Customer complains
  •        Increase in overtime
  •         Presence of cumulative trauma disorder
  • An accident is an unanticipated, sudden event that may cause an undesired outcome such as property damage, bodily injury, or death

Injury is physical damage to body tissues caused by an accident or by exposure to environmental stressor.

accidents are caused by
accidents are caused by
  • failure of people
  • equipment
  • chemicals
  • the surrounding environment
accidents result in
Accidents result in :
  • loss of life
  • pain and suffering
  • injury

lost wages for the injured

  • property damage (damage to

facilities and equipment)

  • lost production opportunity
the causes of accidents
  • difficult to summarize
  • Many accidents are clearly multi factorial
  • Some of the more important factors are

       - age

      - experience

        - time of day

      - work rate

        - type of work

       - health of the worker

       - industrial relations


Causes of occupational accidents and injury

  • Human factors
      • Age, experience, use medicines or drugs, motivation
  • Environmental factors
      • Lighting, noise, temperature
there 3 different kinds of the causes accidents
There 3 different kinds of the causes accidents

1.Direct causes

2.Indirect causes

3.Root causes

direct causes of accidents
Direct Causes of Accidents

1. Physical and energy sources

Mechanical : equipment, tools, moving parts

Electrical : poor insulation, high voltage

Thermal : conduction, convection,

Radiation, heat transfer

Noise : intensity : frequency

Radiation : ionizing, non ionizing

2. Hazardous material

Compressed or liquefied gas

Corrosive, flammable, radioactive, or

Explosive materials




indirect causes of accidents
Indirect Causes of Accidents

Unsafe acts

  • Failure to use proper PPE
  • Improper equipment or chemical
  • Placement
  • Failure to secure equipment
  • Making safety devices inoperable
  • Operating equipment without authority
  • Operating equipment improperly
  • Operating defective equipment
  • Servicing equipment as it operating
  • Failure to warn personnel
  • Horseplay
  • Drugs or alcohol
  • Smoking in prohibited area
  • Using an unsafe position
indirect causes of accidents1
Indirect Causes of Accidents

Unsafe operating conditions

  • Poor housekeeping
  • Fire and explosion hazards
  • Hazardous air contaminant
  • Poor ventilation
  • Inadequate warning systems
  • Poor illumination
  • Defective equipment or tools
  • Inadequate guards and supports
  • Electrical power failure
  • Instrumentation failure
  • Control valve failure
  • Equipment failure
root causes of accidents
Root Causes of Accidents
  • Safety policy not defined and communicated
  • Responsibility, authority, and accountability not assigned
  • Emphasis on production, rather than safety
  • Lack of direct communication with management
  • Unsafe design and selection of equipment, chemicals, process, and fatalities
  • Inadequate safety inspection procedures
  • Insufficient procedures and safety training for normal and emergency situations
  • Inadequate employee selection, supervision, and rewards
  • Future accidents can be reduced by eliminating one or more potential causes.
  • Accident investigations should be conducted whenever there is lost time injury or a fatality.
accident prevention
Accident Prevention

1. Designing a machine : smooth, comfortable, time efficient motions

2. Evaluating the mechanics of human gait to determine forces acting between the floor surface and the sole of the shoe

3. Designing warning sign