The Round Table Conferences and after According to Jinnah best way forward was Hindu-Muslim unity. (early 1920s) British rule continued due to mistrust b/w Hindus and Muslims (1924)
Jinnah’s Fourteen Points 1928 Jinnah put forward his famous ‘Fourteen Points’ in 1928 which asked for rights of Muslims Congress did not accept. Unbridgeable divide grew b/w Hindus and Muslims.
Jinnah’s Fourteen Points 1928 Unbridgeable divide grew b/w Hindus and Muslims. An uneasy relationship between them until RTC Congress and the Muslim League parted ways after RTC
Gandhi’s Salt March 1930 Reason: Protest against tax on salt (less than quarter of a rupee/y, still affected everyone)
Gandhi’s Salt March 1930 What happened? Gandhi + thousands of followers set off on month-long march.
Gandhi’s Salt March 1930 From Gandhi’s home at Ahmadabad to a beach near Bombay.
Gandhi’s Salt March 1930 Picked up salt in defiance of British rules
Gandhi’s Salt March 1930 Other protests too against paying of rent and taxes In the following year up to 92,000 people were imprisoned. Gandhi called off protests after having talks with the Viceroy Lord Irwin
The Round Table Conferences First Round Table Conference 1930 Second Round Table Conference 1931 Third Round Table Conference 1932
The Round Table Conferences Organised by the British Held in London Why? (purpose) To try to find a way of ruling India that would be accepted by everybody.
The Round Table Conferences Attended by British government officials and Indian leaders (such as Jinnah, Aga Khan, Allama Iqbal, Congress leaders including Gandhi)
The Round Table Conferences Result: A failure Reasons for failure: British were not yet ready to hand over as much power as Indians wanted. Different groups of Indians could not agree among themselves.
Jinnah’s great shock Jinnah was disgusted/discouraged by the Congress attitude no hope for the Hindu-Muslim unity for which he had been working
Jinnah’s great shock settled in London life of a wealthy man Muslim League declined in his absence. Congress gained power with Gandhi, Nehru
New life for the League at Lucknow Liaquat Ali Khan & his wife visited Jinnah in London appealed to return back to build up League Jinnah returned
New life for the League at Lucknow elected as the permanent president of the League brought new life for League
Govt. of India Act 1935/Elections under the act elections held in 1937 power to be handed over to the elected parliament in 11 provinces overall control rested with the British
Govt. of India Act 1935/Elections Congress won majority in 7 out of 11 provinces, formed govt. no cooperation with Muslim League introduced anti-Muslim measures e.g. Wardha Scheme, Band-e-Matram
1937: at League’s meeting Jinnah appeared in national costume (leaving aside English clothes) sign of change became popular, called Quaid-i-Azam 1933: the name Pakistan conceived by Choudhri Rahmat Ali p
The sun sets on the British Empire A change in mood: Royal visit 1911 visit by King George V Indians felt enthusiastic cheers, shouts, excited cries of ‘Badshah Badshah’
1921 • visit by Prince of Wales • Gandhi called for boycotting royal visit • People stayed inside houses silently • Black flags on roofs or doors as a sign of protest A change in mood: Royal visit
The sun sets on the British Empire What was British Empire? Treaty of Versailles (1919): new territories for British included German Empire in Africa power in the Arab world so large, called ‘ the Empire on which the sun never sets’.
The sun sets on the British Empire What was British Empire? more than 400 million people lived in the Empire “was a tribute to the superb organizational skills of the White empire builders”
The sun sets on the British Empire Reasons for decline: sacrifices made by the countries led to decrease in loyalty of the Empire’s troops (e.g. Indian, Canadian) War had been expensive --- British no more able to run Empire as before
Reasons for decline: Nationalist feelings grew in Imperial lands 2nd World War British possessions conquered by Japan (e.g. Singapore) to gain support of Empire for war, British gave promises led to lose possessions
The sun sets on the British Empire Reasons for decline: Further weakened after WW2 in areas of trade and finance Allies ---- no longer wanted to belong to Empire British --- forced to step-down from 1st rank position, give way to USA
The sun sets on the British Empire British loses interest in India. Why? Pre – war years important for British trade a market for British goods more imports from Britain balance of trade in favour of British
The sun sets on the British Empire Post – war years • less important for British trade • more exports to Britain • balance of trade in favour of India • after WW1 Indian support no more required. British loses interest in India. Why?