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The Relationship of language & culture. 122 Najd. Language & culture. “ There’s no water. You might as well do tayammum / التيمم ”. Language & culture. Ta'mid ( تعميد ) ʿAqīqah ( عقيقة ) . Language & culture. Merbe’aneya (مربعانية). Language & culture. Types of British Rain:

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The Relationship of language & culture

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    language culture
    Language & culture
    • “ There’s no water. You might as well do tayammum/ التيمم”
    language culture1
    Language & culture
    • Ta'mid (تعميد )
    • ʿAqīqah (عقيقة)
    language culture2
    Language & culture
    • Merbe’aneya(مربعانية)
    language culture3
    Language & culture
    • Types of British Rain:
    • Mist
    • Mizzle
    • Drizzle
    • Spitting
    • Spotting
    • Rain
    • Showers
    • Downpour
    • Torrential
    • Sleet, etc.
    language culture4
    Language & culture
    • The words people utter refer to their common experiences.
    • They express facts, ideas or events that are communicable because they refer to knowledge about the world that other people share.
    language culture5
    Language & culture
    • Words also reflect their authors’ attitudes and beliefs, their point of view that are also those of others:
    • “ I will see you tomorrow in sha Allah.”
    • Inna lillawainnailahirajioon.
    language culture6
    Language & culture
    • In both cases (expressing facts, ideas, opinions, or attitudes and beliefs), language expresses cultural reality.
    language culture7
    Language & culture
    • Members of a community do not only expressexperience, they also create experience through language.
    language culture8
    Language & culture

    The way in which people use the spoken, written, or visual medium itself creates meanings that are understandable to the group they belong to, for example, through a speaker’s tone of voice, accent, gestures and facial expressions.

    language culture10
    Language & culture

    Slow Down!

    Be Patient!

    language culture11
    Language & culture
    • Through all its verbal and non-verbal aspects, language embodies cultural reality.
    language culture12
    Language & culture
    • A language is a system of signs (e.g. gestures, vocal sounds or written symbols) that encodes information.
    language culture13
    Language & culture
    • It is seen as having itself a cultural value. Speakers identify themselves and others through their use of language; they view their language as a symbol of their social identity.
    language culture14
    Language & culture
    • Language is a central feature of human identity. When we hear someone speak, we immediately make guesses about gender, education level, age, profession, and place of origin. Beyond this individual matter, a language is a powerful symbol of national and ethnic identity. (Spolsky, 1999, p. 181)
    language culture15
    Language & culture
    • The prohibition of its use is often perceived by its speakers as a rejection of their social group and their culture.
    language culture16
    Language & culture
    • There is no Americano dream. There is only the American dream created by an Anglo-Protestant society. Mexican Americans will share in that dream and in that society only if they dream in English.”
    • Huntington (2004)
    language culture17
    Language & culture
    • Maintaining one’s native language is seen as spiteful—the purposeful rejection of American norms and values. Those who use a language other than English in the workplace are characterized as rude and insubordinate ….In order to be a good worker, and a good American, one must repudiate one’s native tongue and assimilate completely.
    language culture18
    Language & culture
    • Thus we can say that language symbolizes cultural reality.
    language culture19
    Language & culture
    • Essential Oils

    by Emily Dickinson


    How does the poem show the relationship of nature, culture, and language?

    language culture20
    Language & culture
    • So, the poem bears testimony that nature and culture both need each other.
    language culture21
    Language & culture
    • The poem wouldn’t have been written if there were no natural roses; but it would not be understood if it didn’t share with its readers some common assumptions and expectations.
    language culture22
    Language & culture
    • Like the screws of the rose press, these common collective expectations can be liberating, as they give a universal rose a particular meaning by imposing a structure, so to speak, on nature.
    language culture23
    Language & culture
    • But they can also be constraining.
    language culture24
    Language & culture
    • Constraining ..... How?
    • A: Particular meanings are adopted by the speech community and imposed in turn on its members, who find it then difficult, or even impossible, to say or feel anything original about roses.
    language culture25
    Language & culture
    • For example, once a bouquet of roses becomes a society’s way of expressing love,
    language culture26
    Language & culture
    • it becomes extremely difficult to express this feeling without using the symbol that their society imposes upon them.
    language culture27
    Language & culture
    • For example, it would be highly controversial and risky if a person decided to give someone chrysanthemums as a sign of love.
    language culture28
    Language & culture
    • Chrysanthemums, in Germany, for example, are reserved for the dead!
    language culture29
    Language & culture
    • Meanings of different flowers:

    language culture30
    Language & culture
    • B: Etiquette, expressions of politeness, social dos and don’ts shape people’s behavior through child rearing, behavioral upbringing, schooling, and professional training.
    language culture32
    Language & culture
    • C: The use of written language is also shaped and socialized through culture. Not only what is proper to write to whom in what circumstances, but also which text genres are appropriate ( the application form, the business letter, the political pamphlet), because they are sanctioned by cultural conventions.
    language culture33
    Language & culture
    • These ways with language, or norms of interaction and interpretation, form part of the invisible ritual imposed by culture on language users. This is culture’s way of bringing order and predictability into people’s use of language.
    language culture34
    Language & culture
    • This double effect of culture on the individual – both liberating and constraining- plays itself out on the social, the historical andthe metaphorical planes.
    language culture35
    Language & culture


    language culture36
    Language & culture
    • Speech Community: People who use the same linguistic code.
    language culture37
    Language & culture
    • People who identify themselves as members of a social group ( family, neighborhood, professional or ethnic affiliation, and nation) acquire common ways of viewing the world through their interactions with other members of the same group.
    language culture38
    Language & culture

    These views are reinforced through institutions like the family, the school, the workplace, religious duties, the government, and other sites of socialization through their lives.

    language culture39
    Language & culture
    • Common attitudes, beliefs, and values are reflected in the way members of the group use language – for example, what they choose to say or not to say and how they say it.
    language culture40
    Language & culture
    • Discourse Communities: The common ways in which members of a social group use language to meet their social needs.
    language culture41
    Language & culture
    • The grammatical, lexical, and phonological features of their language ( for example, teenage talk, professional jargon, political rhetoric).
    language culture42
    Language & culture
    • “ Discourse Accent” – The topics people choose to talk about, the way they present information, and the style with which they interact.
    language culture43
    Language & culture
    • For instance, Americans have been socialized into responding with ‘Thank you’ to any compliment, as if they were acknowledging a friendly gift: ‘I like your sweater!’ – ‘Oh, thank you!’
    language culture44
    Language & culture
    • The French, who tend to perceive such a compliment as an intrusion into their privacy, would rather downplay the compliment and minimize its value: ‘Oh really? It’s quite old!’
    language culture45
    Language & culture
    • The reactions of both groups are based on the differing values given to compliments in both cultures, and on the differing degrees of embarrassment caused by personal comments.
    language culture46
    Language & culture
    • Historical:
    language culture47
    Language & culture
    • There is another way of viewing culture—one which takes a more historical perspective.
    language culture48
    Language & culture
    • For the cultural ways which can be identified at any one time have evolved and become solidified over time, which is why they are so often taken for natural behavior.
    language culture49
    Language & culture
    • They have remained in the memories of group members who have experienced them firsthand or merely heard about them, and who have passed them on in speech and writing from one generation to the next.
    language culture50
    Language & culture
    • The General Rose - decay – But this - in Lady's Drawer Make Summer - When the Lady lie

    In Ceaseless Rosemary -

    language culture51
    Language & culture
    • The poem highlights the social value of rose perfume and the funeral custom of surrounding the dead with fragrant rosemary.
    language culture52
    Language & culture
    • The culture of everyday practices draws on the culture of shared history and traditions.
    language culture53
    Language & culture
    • This view of culture focuses on the way in which a social group represents itself and others through its material productions over time—
    language culture54
    Language & culture
    • its technological achievements, its monuments, its works of art, its popular culture—that mark the development of its historical identity.
    language culture55
    Language & culture
    • This material culture is reproduced and preserved through institutions that are also part of the culture, like museums, schools, public libraries, governments, corporations, and the media.
    language culture56
    Language & culture
    • The Eiffel Tower or the Mona Lisa exist as material artifacts, but they have been kept alive and given the prominence they have on the cultural market through what artists,
    language culture57
    Language & culture
    • art collectors, poets, novelists, travel agents, tourist guides have said and written about them.
    language culture60
    Language & culture
    • Language is not a culture-free code, distinct from the way people think and behave, but, rather, it plays a major role in the perpetuation of culture, particularly in its printed form.
    language culture61
    Language & culture
    • Metaphorical:
    language culture62
    Language & culture
    • These two layers of culture combined, the social and the historical have often been called the sociocultural context of language study.
    language culture63
    Language & culture
    • There is, in addition, a third essential layer to culture, namely, the imagination.
    language culture64
    Language & culture
    • Discourse communities are characterized not only by facts and artifacts, but by common dreams, fulfilled and unfulfilled imaginings.
    language culture65
    Language & culture
    • These imaginings are mediated through the language, that over the life of the commu­nity reflects, shapes, and is a metaphor for its cultural reality.
    language culture66
    Language & culture
    • Thus the city of London is inseparable, in the cultural imagination of its citizens, from Shakespeare and Dickens.
    language culture67
    Language & culture
    • The Lincoln Memorial Building in Washington has been given extra meaning through the words “I have a dream…” that Martin Luther King Jr. spoke there in 1963.
    language culture69
    Language & culture
    • These are intimately linked not only to the culture that is and the culture that was, but also to the culture of the imagination that governs people's decisions and actions far more than we may think.
    language culture70
    Language & culture
    • Insiders vs. Outsiders
    language culture71
    Language & culture
    • To identify themselves as members of a community, people have to define themselves jointly as insiders against others, whom they thereby define as outsiders.
    language culture72
    Language & culture
    • Culture, as a process that both includes and excludes, always entails the exercise of power and control.
    language culture73
    Language & culture
    • Cultures, and especially national cultures, resonate with the voices of the powerful, and are filled with the silences of the powerless.
    language culture74
    Language & culture
    • For example, Edward Said describes how the French constructed for themselves a view of the culture of 'the Orient'.
    language culture75
    Language & culture
    • The Orient itself was not given a voice.
    language culture76
    Language & culture
    • Such orientalism, Said argues, has had a wide-ranging effect on the way Europeans and Americans have viewed the Middle East,
    language culture77
    Language & culture
    • and imposed that view on Middle Easterners themselves, who implicitly accept it when they see themselves the way the West sees them.
    language culture79
    Language & culture
    • Similarly, scholars in Gender Studies and Ethnic Studies, have shown the hegemonic effects of dominant cultures and the authority they have in representing and in speaking for the Other.
    language culture80
    Language & culture
    • Accurate Cultural “Representation”:
    language culture81
    Language & culture
    • The study of language has always had to deal with the difficult issue of representation and representativity when talking about another culture.
    language culture82
    Language & culture
    • Who is entitled to speak for whom, to represent whom through spoken and written language?
    language culture83
    Language & culture
    • Who has the authority to select what is representative of a given culture: the outsider who observes and studies that culture, or the insider who lives and experiences it?
    language culture84
    Language & culture
    • According to what and whose criteria can a cultural feature be called representative of that culture?
    language culture85
    Language & culture
    • In the social, the historic, and the imagined dimension, culture is heterogeneous.
    language culture86
    Language & culture
    • Members of the same discourse community all have different biographies and life experiences, they may differ in age, gender, or ethnicity, they may have different political opinions.
    language culture87
    Language & culture
    • In summary, culture can be defined as membership in a discourse community that shares a common social space and history, and common imaginings.
    language culture88
    Language & culture
    • Even when they have left that community, its members may retain, wherever they are, a common system of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluat­ing, and acting. These standards are what is generally called their 'culture’.
    language culture89
    Language & culture
    • Signifier and Signified: