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Monday 2/3/14. Aim: How can we define Mass Media?. Do Now: What do you think the word media means? HW: Bring in a print advertisement (from a newspaper, magazine, online) Thursday. Vocab Unit 6 Quiz next Tuesday!!!. Intro:. Textbook Distribution

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aim how can we define mass media



Aim: How can we define Mass Media?

Do Now:

What do you think the word media means?

HW: Bring in a print advertisement (from a newspaper, magazine, online) Thursday.

Vocab Unit 6 Quiz next Tuesday!!!

  • Textbook Distribution
  • Take a few minutes to thumb through the textbook.
  • Overview of the course.
    • Advertising, Books, Radio, Television, Film
  • Projects-
    • Advertisement, Children's book, TV Show, Radio Station, Film
  • Grades
    • Participation – 20%
    • Other grades – 80%
      • Projects - X4
      • Quizzes, worksheets, writing assignments – X2
      • Vocab Quizzes – X1
i what are mass media

I. What are mass media?

(Grammar NOTE: Yes, I mean ‘are’. There are many types. “Media” is the plural of “medium”. Have you heard of the show Medium?

a history of mass media
A. History of mass media
  • Human desire and need to break the barriers of time and distance
    • Live beyond a lifetime
    • Move beyond the distance we can physically travel
    • Like space…the final frontier
b definitions
B. Definitions
  • Medium: a channel or system of communication
    • Speech is most widely used
      • Others: painting, sign language, written word, music, images, smoke signals
  • Mass medium: means of communicating to a large number of people
    • Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, books, films, recordings, internet
      • Not possible until the invention of the printing press in 1458 by Johannes Gutenberg
more definitions
MORE Definitions
  • Personal communication media:
    • Method of communication through time and space, but not involving the masses
  • Broadcast media: radio and television
    • Using electric signals to reach a large audience
    • Cable television: not broadcasting because wires are used to carry the programs to specific households.
ii global view of broadcasting
II. Global View of Broadcasting
  • A. USA:
    • Radio – mostly music and DJs; all-news station and talk show (sports)
    • Television – daytime drama, sitcoms, adventure, game shows, news, reality TV, PBS (culture and education)
  • B. Europe and Canada:
    • More cultural and educational TV
    • Governments believe that advertising should not control programming
      • Ex: BBC – no advertising / supported by tax paid through TV and radio sales
Small countries: buy US television shows (dubbed) even if they are inconsistent with the country’s perceived / accepted value system
  • Communist and 3rd world nations: all broadcasting is controlled by the government
    • Governments use stations to encourage patriotism and control news
      • (governments own and operate most of the world’s radio and television stations)
    • Radio transmitters guarded by high fences and machine guns
    • Rebels attempt to overthrow government through broadcast transmitters
what do mass media produce
What do mass media produce?
  • The Role of Celebrity (What need do celebrities fill?)
    • Concept expanded when technology made possible the duplication and distribution of images.
    • Fulfill the public need of fantasy
      • Audience identifies with celebrities who live out fantasies
  • “Stars” – different, but not too different from their fans
    • Celebrity = glamorous self
celebrities continued
Celebrities - continued
  • Development of Hollywood
    • Stars must lead glamorous lives (created if necessary) – pseudo events whose purpose is to attract attention
    • Recording industry followed the lead (Motown Records)
changes caused by mass media
Before Mass Media

Well-known people were famous for actions or achievements

Public knew and admired heroes

Since Mass Media

Well known because of manufactured image

Public knows and admires celebrities

Changes caused by mass media
what is media
What is media?
  • Take out a piece of paper and write down the following terms.
    • Culture
    • Mass communication
    • Mass media
  • Culture
    • The symbols of expression that individuals, groups, and societies use to make sense of daily life and to articulate their values.
  • Mass communication:
    • The process of designing and delivering cultural messages and stories to large diverse audiences through media channels as old as the book and as new as the Internet.
  • Mass Media
    • Are the cultural industries-the channels of communication-that produce and distribute songs, novels, newspapers, movies, Internet services, and other cultural products to large numbers of people.
topics for discussion
Topics for Discussion
  • Oral and Written Form Begin the Dialogue
  • Printed Communication Spreads the Word
  • Electronic and Digital Communication Bring Immediacy to the Message
  • Media Convergence Comes of Age
answers the following
Answers the following:
  • What are the key technological breakthroughs that accompanied the transition to the print and electronic eras?
  • Why were these technologies significant?

Pick an example of a popular media product that you think is harmful to children. How would you make your concerns known? Should the product be removed from circulation? Why or why not?


Although in some ways postmodern forms of communication, such as email, facebook, etc., have helped citizens participate in global life, in what ways might these forms be harmful?


Turn to page 16. Examine the “Culture Skyskraper.”Where do your interests fall? Do you see your interests moving up at all as you get older?

media literary and steps in the critical process pg 28
Media Literary and Steps in the Critical Process (pg. 28)
  • With a partner: write a brief outline of an argument either defending or condemning social media (Facebook, twitter, etc.).
  • In other words, are social media more useful or more harmful.
  • What is Mass Media?
  • HW: Bring in a print advertisement (from a newspaper, magazine, online) tomorrow.
  • Vocab Unit 5 Quiz on Friday!!!
case study
Case Study
  • After completing this exercise we will read a case study on pg. 15. (Staging Stunts Takes TV to New Low)




Aim: How can we learn about the history of advertising? How are techniques and persuasive strategies used in advertising?

Do Now: What is your earliest recollection of watching a TV commercial? Do you have a favorite ad? A most-despised ad? What is it about these ads that you particularly like or dislike?

Homework: Bring in a print advertisement (from a newspaper, magazine, online) Thursday.

Vocab Unit 6 quiz Tuesday!!!

what is advertising
What is Advertising?

Advertising is paid communication in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled

why does advertising exist
Why does advertising exist?

To solve a problem- more goods than


***If there were only brand of sneakers, you wouldn’t need to advertise them!

where do we see advertising





Human Directors


Shopping Carts



Placement of a product (TV/Movie)

Where do we see advertising?
covert advertising
Covert Advertising

Did you know every time you say Band-Aid or Scotch Tape YOU are actually advertising for FREE???

OR when a singer says a product’s name that is free advertising too?

  • Fox sold out of commercial time for the 2014 Super Bowl months in advance at an average of $2 million per 30 seconds.
brief history of advertising and commercial culture
Brief History of Advertising and Commercial Culture
  • 1704 – first newspaper ad featuring land deals and ship cargoes appears in the Boston News-Letter
  • 1841- first advertising agency opens in Boston – it represented newspaper publishers, Volney Palmer
  • 1875 – first modern agency, the N.W. Ayer agency, working for advertisers and product companies rather than publishers opens in Philadelphia
stages of advertising
Stages of Advertising
  • Information Stage: before the 19th century (price lists, signs, town criers)
  • Attention Stage: Use of devices to attract attention (borders/type)
  • Repetition Stage: at a time when it was ruled to be unfair to use LARGER type, the type was repeated (familiar and accepted)
stages of advertising1
Stages of Advertising
  • Association Stage: graphics and pictures (product associations)
  • Product- Benefit Stage: how will the customer benefit from the product?
  • Motivation Stage: People buy goods because of psychological needs (make them more powerful/beautiful etc.)
stages of advertising2
Stages of Advertising
  • Entertainment Stage: Commercials that sell things because they are entertaining (You like the commercial so you buy the product)
  • Behavioral Stage: Present the product image as satisfying a real consumer need (organics-health conscientious)
brief history continued
Brief History (continued)
  • 1906 – to monitor misleading patent-medicine claims in newspaper and magazine ads, the Federal Food and Drug Act is passed.
  • 1914 – The Federal Trade Commission is established by the federal government to help monitor advertising abuses.
brief history continued1
Brief History (continued)
  • 1940’s – a voluntary group of agencies and advertisers organizes war-bond sales, blood-donor drives, and food rationing; the postwar extension of these voluntary efforts becomes known as the Ad Council.
  • 1971 – the tobacco industry agrees to a government rule that bans cigarette advertising from television.
brief history continued2
Brief History (continued)
  • 1988 – R.J. Reynolds revives the Joe Camel cartoon character from an earlier print media campaign; the percentage of teens smoking Camels rises sharply.
  • 1989 – Channel One is introduced into thousands of schools offering “free” equipment in exchange for ten minutes of news programming and two minutes of commercials.
brief history continued3
Brief History (continued)
  • 1996 – the Canadian liquor company and media conglomerate Seagram defies the 60-year old voluntary ban by the U.S. liquor industry on hard liquor ads in broadcasting.
  • 1998 – the tobacco industry agrees to a settlement with several states, and tobacco ads on billboards are banned.
  • Late 90s – Budweiser uses cartoonish animal characters to appeal to young viewers.
brief history continued4
Brief History (continued)
  • 2002 – four international mega-agencies—Omnicom, Interpublic, WPP, and Publicis– control more than one-half of the world’s ad revenues
  • 2004 – one hour out of 3 of prime-time network television contains ads. An 8 percent increase since 2000.
brief history continued5
Brief History (continued)
  • 2004 – spam e-mail ads account for more than 60 percent of all e-mail volume.
  • 2004 – the Super Bowl remains the most expensive program for purchasing TV ads-one thirty second spot costs more than $2 million.
take a look at your ad
Take a look at your ad…
  • What technique(s) is used?
  • Ethos, Pathos, Logos?
  • Is the ad effective? Why or why not?
  • ***If you are unprepared for class today, make a friend and use his or her ad***
ethos pathos logos


Three Methods of Persuasion

advertising techniques
Advertising Techniques
  • ETHOS- Ethos is appeal based on the character of the speaker. An ethos-driven document relies on the reputation of the author.
  • PATHOS-Pathos is appeal based on emotion. Advertisements tend to be pathos-driven.
  • LOGOS-Logos is appeal based on logic or reason. Documents distributed by companies or corporations are logos-driven. Scholarly documents are also often logos-driven.
ethos appeal to character
ETHOS = Appeal to Character
  • Ethos appeals to an audience by creating an atmosphere of trust.
  • Ethos highlights the character of its source. We look less to the message than to the person who’s delivering it.
  • Ethos is all about CREDIBILITY:
    • The source strikes us as authoritative.
    • The source strikes us as worthy of respect.
    • The source strikes us as likeable.
    • The source strikes us as honest.
examples of ethos in advertising
Examples of Ethos in advertising:
  • A doctor endorsing a diet plan.
  • A sports figure endorsing athletic shoes.
  • A celebrity endorsing just about anything.
  • An “everyman” figure endorsing a product who strikes us as honest and likeable and a lot like us.

Buy this book because Oprah says to! (She’s honest and level-headed and knows a good read when she sees one—plus she’s rich and famous!)


pathos appeal to emotion
PATHOS = Appeal to Emotion
  • Pathos appeals to an audience through emotionally charged language and images.
  • Pathos appeals to both positive emotions like love and sympathy and to negative emotions like anger and insecurity.
  • Pathos is all about gut reactions that we don’t analyze. It has the greatest potential to spur the audience to act.
examples of pathos in advertising
Examples of Pathos in Advertising
  • Ads that feature adorable kids.
  • Ads that feature shocking or violent images.
  • Ads that show embarrassing situations that prey on insecurities.
  • Ads that feature sexy actors that arouse sexual desire.
logos appeal to reason
LOGOS = Appeal to Reason
  • Logos appeals to the audience through logical argument.
  • Logos provides reasons and points to cause and effect.
  • Logos is the main method of persuasion in academic writing and speaking.
examples of logos in advertising
Examples of Logos in Advertising
  • Ads that quote statistics.
  • Ads that argue for superior performance or durability.
  • Ads that claim health benefits.
  • Ads that use deductive reasoning (X is good, Y is an example of X, so Y is good).

Research shows there are good reasons to drink fluids when you exercise, and Gatorade is a fluid !


ehtos pathos and logos all work together
  • Rhetoric usually involves a mixture of all three types of persuasion.
  • Even in academic writing, where logos is predominant, authors attempt to earn their readers’ trust by appearing authoritative and credible (ethos), and may also bring in emotional anecdotes or case studies as supporting evidence or employ subtly charged language (pathos).


Text makes argument that reporters need to inform public about what goes on in combat zones.


Name of organization gives credibility.


Shocking image of bloody body creates sense of outrage.



  • ETHOS = appeal to character (TRUST ME!)
  • PATHOS = appeal to emotion (GUT RESPONSE!)
  • LOGOS = appeal to reason (LOGIC’S ON MY SIDE!)




advertising techniques1
Advertising Techniques

The Unfinished Technique

The ad claims that the product is better or has more of something but does not finish the comparison.

Example: “Magnaflux gives you more.”

the weasel word technique
The Weasel Word Technique

Sounds convincing at first, but when you look closely, the words are empty.

(helps, virtually, can be, up to, fights, feels, strengthened, comforts, as much as, refreshes)

Examples: “Leaves dishes virtually


“Part of a nutritious


the we re different and unique technique
The “We’re Different and Unique” Technique

States that there is nothing quite like the product advertised

Examples: “There’s no other mascara like it”

“Only Inca has this unique filter system”

the water is wet technique
The “Water is Wet” Technique

Ads say something about the product that would be true for any brand in that product category

Examples: “Super Lash greatly increases the diameter of every lash.”

“The detergent gasoline”

the vague technique
The Vague Technique

Uses words that are colorful and meaningless, usually with emotionalopinions/often overlaps with other techniques

Example: “For skin like peaches and cream”.

the endorsement testimonial technique
The Endorsement/Testimonial Technique

Use of a celebrity or an authority to sell the product

Examples: Michael Jordan for Nike or Hanes

Variation- “John Doe” endorsement

people “just like you” use the product

the scientific statistical technique
The Scientific/Statistical Technique

Ad refers to specific numbers, experiment, or impressive mystery ingredient

Example: “Molly’s oven cleaner has 33% more cleaning power than another popular brand”.

the compliment the customer technique
The Compliment the Customer Technique

Ad that flatters the consumer.

Examples: “Hungary Man: For the real


the rhetorical question technique
The Rhetorical Question Technique

Demands a response from the audience to affirm a product’s goodness

Examples: “Wouldn’t you rather drive a


“Shouldn’t your family be drinking Hawaiian Punch?”


Should advertising aimed at children be regulated? Support your response.

  • Should tobacco (or alcohol) advertising be prohibited? Why or why not?

Homework: Bring in an ad from a magazine tomorrow Thursday!!!

Vocab Unit 6 quiz Tuesday!!!

read the following
Read the following:
  • Read the section of the chapter titled: Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising beginning on page 401:
  • Critical Issues in advertising
  • Children in advertising
  • Advertising in schools
  • Health and advertising
answer the following in groups
Answer the following in groups
  • Why are so many people critical of advertising?
  • If you were a parent, what strategies would you use to explain an objectionable ad to your child or teenager? Use example
  • Should advertising aimed at children be regulated? Support your response.
  • Should tobacco (or alcohol) advertising be prohibited? Why or why not?
aim how can we analyze current television commercials


February 5, 2013

AIM: How can we analyze current television commercials?

DO NOW: What was your favorite super bowl commercial and why?

HW: Bring in a PRINT AD.

Vocab Unit 6 Quiz – Tuesday.

super bowl commercials
  • While watching commercials make a list of what you like and what you dislike.
super bowl commercials1
Super Bowl Commercials
  • Which commercials are effective/ ineffective and why?
after watching
After watching..
  • In groups answer the following questions:
  • What are your favorite types of commercials ads and why?
  • What do the ads have in common?
  • What differs about each ad?
  • What are the characteristics of the ad?
  • Who is the ad targeted towards?
  • Which commercial was most effective and why?



AIM: How can we analyze advertisements?DO NOW: What is your ad? Why did you choose it?HW: Vocab Unit 6 Quiz Tuesday.

analyze your ads for
Analyze your ads for:
  • Product- What is the as selling
  • Technique- What technique is used- look at notes.
  • Effectiveness- Is this ad effective? Why or why not?
now swap your ads with someone else
Now Swap your ads with someone else..
  • Analyze these ads for Product, technique and effectiveness.
  • Do this for at least 5 ads.
  • Why do we analyze an ad for product, technique and effectiveness?
  • Why is it important?


February 4, 2013

AIM: How can you make an advertisement of your own?Do Now: What is your favorite type of advertisement? Print ad, Radio ad, or TV ad? Why?

Homework: Vocab unit 6 quiz Tuesday!

Project outline and packet due Thursday!!!

Completed project due Tuesday, 2/18!!!!

for each of the following
For each of the following:
  • Identify the product
  • Technique
  • Appeal
advertising assignment
Advertising Assignment
  • Assignment: With the members of your group ( no more than 3) you must choose to create a print ad, radio ad, or a television commercial for a consumer product incorporating at least one of the advertising approaches discussed in class.
  • You will complete the Advertising Project Packet and Outline by Thursday.
  • Finished project is due Tuesday, 2/18.
print ad
  • Must include ORIGINAL slogan and ORIGINAL visual image or symbol.
radio ad
  • Must include an ORIGINAL slogan and ORIGINAL script.
television commercial
Television Commercial
  • Must include a storyboard.
  • 30 second commercial
  • Must be approved before being shown in the class.
class time
  • The project will be presented in class
  • You will have a week in class to work on your project so make sure you have all the materials you need with you.