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Chapter 12. American Pageant M. Carter. War Fronts. WEST & CANADA Americans fought poorly Army was poorly trained Largely unsuccessful In Canada- attempted to fight on 3 fronts at once- poor strategy. War Fronts. At Sea Most able and well-prepared “Old Iron-sides”. “Old Ironsides”.

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

American Pageant

M. Carter

war fronts
War Fronts
    • Americans fought poorly
    • Army was poorly trained
    • Largely unsuccessful
    • In Canada- attempted to fight on 3 fronts at once- poor strategy
war fronts1
War Fronts
  • At Sea
    • Most able and well-prepared
    • “Old Iron-sides”
oliver wendell holmes
Oliver Wendell Holmes

Ay, tear her tattered ensign down! Long has it waved on high, And many an eye has danced to see That banner in the sky; Beneath it rung the battle shout, And burst the cannon’s roar; — The meteor of the ocean air Shall sweep the clouds no more.

Her deck, once red with heroes’ blood, Where knelt the vanquished foe, When winds were hurrying o’er the flood,

And waves were white below, No more shall feel the victor’s tread, Or know the conquered knee; — The harpies of the shore shall pluck The eagle of the sea!

Oh, better that her shattered hulk Should sink beneath the wave; Her thunders shook the mighty deep, And there should be her grave; Nail to the mast her holy flag, Set every threadbare sail, And give her to the god of storms, The lightning and the gale!


Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo

British attention was no longer divided- all attention on the US

Best troops began arriving in North America

washington dc
Washington DC

British sailed up the Chesapeake to attack the Capitol

White House and Capitol burned

Dolly Madison saved Washington’s portrait


British unable to take Baltimore

Battle at Fort McHenry

“Star Spangled Banner” by Francis Scott Key

battle of new orleans
Battle of New Orleans

Andrew Jackson

War Hero & Indian fighter

Battle occurred two weeks after the treaty was signed- word had not reached them yet

Defeated the British

treaty of ghent
Treaty of Ghent

Signed in Belgium


Stalemate- “Not one Inch of Territory Ceded or Lost.”

hartford convention
Hartford Convention
  • New England Federalists
  • Mass, Conn, RI, NH, Vt
  • List of grievances and demands:
    • 2/3 Congress required to-
    • Amend the Constitution
    • Place a new embargo
    • Admit new states

Wanted to eliminate the 3/5 compromise because it gave the South an unfair advantage

  • Only allow a single term presidency
  • Prevent the continuation of the “Virginia Dynasty” by disallowing more than one president from a single state in consecutive years
  • Repayment for lost and damaged goods (government would pay)- because of embargo and impressment and war
  • The most radical members called for secession from the United States

The delegation arrived in DC at the same time as the news of the Treaty of Ghent and Jackson’s victory in New Orleans.

New England appeared traitorous and petty.

Nearly tried for treason.

impact of the war of 1812
Impact of the War of 1812

Willing to fight to defend its freedom

Our diplomats were treated with more respect when abroad

Less sectionalism

Creation of war heroes- Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison

Stronger manufacturing industries

Less dependence on European imports


Increased nationalism

    • American literature
    • National Capitol
    • National Anthem
  • Expanded army and navy
  • New charter for the Bank of the United States
rush bagot treaty
Rush-Bagot Treaty

Between Britain and the US

Limited naval power on the Great Lakes

the american system
The “American System”
  • Henry Clay
  • 3 Parts
    • Banking- expansion of credit
    • Protective Tariff- expand manufacturing
    • Internal Improvements (transportation networks)- important for trade and to connect the East to the West
tariff of 1816
Tariff of 1816

Protective Tariff

Stimulate the national economy

Protect manufacturers

internal improvements
Internal Improvements
  • Madison vetoed all attempts to gain federal funding for these projects
  • Stated this was not an enumerated power, thus unconstitutional- fell within the realm of states’ rights
  • States began building roads and canals
  • Private individuals began raising and contributing funds for internal improvements
    • Erie Canal and Cumberland Road
era of good feelings
Era of Good Feelings

Presidency of James Monroe

Took a Goodwill Tour of the Nation

Mostly a ONE-Party system

Nationalism prevailed

Little sectionalism

Economy good (in the beginning)

panic of 1819
Panic of 1819

Economic Panic

Depression, deflation, bankruptcies, bank failure, unemployment, soup kitchens, overcrowded debtors’ prison

Brought about by the overspeculation of western land

“wildcat” (western) banks gave loans for the speculation

Led to foreclosure on farm mortgages

addition of new states
Addition of new states
  • Addition of new western states
    • Admitted alternate free and slave states to maintain the sectional balance
why were people moving west
Why were people moving West?

The unknown- mystery

Chance for a better life (“land of promise”)

Cheap land

Land exhaustion in the east

Indians under control

New roads connecting East and West

New immigrants

Land Act of 1820- cheaper land

tallmadge amendment
Tallmadge Amendment

NO more slaves allowed in Missouri

Gradual emancipation of children born to slavery


Southern slave owners- feared total emancipation

Westerners- wanted unrestricted movement to increase population = new statehood

missouri compromise
Missouri Compromise


Agreement brokered by Henry Clay- the “Great Compromiser”

Missouri enters as a SLAVE state

Maine enters as a FREE state

Balance of power is maintained

Line set at 36, 30 for future- above = FREE, below = SLAVE

mcculloch v maryland
McCulloch v. Maryland

Marshall Court

MD taxing Bank of the US

Decision: Taxing bank = preventing them from operating efficiently

Declaration of Bank as Constitutional

Supported loose constructionism and concept of “implied powers”

Continued to strengthen the federal government

cohens v virginia
Cohens v. Virginia

Marshall Court

Decision: Right of the federal court to oversee the decisions of the state courts

Loss of state rights

gibbons v ogden
Gibbons v. Ogden

Marshall Court

Decision: interstate travel and commerce a federal issue, not a state issue

NY/NJ steamboat case

Interstate cases continue to be federal

dartmouth college v woodward
Dartmouth College v. Woodward

Marshall Court

NH tried to change the college’s original charter

Decision: a charter is a contract and it has to be upheld since it is legally binding.

Protected businesses against state encroachments and interference

Unintended effects: corporations with charters escape necessary public controls and oversight

boundaries territories
Boundaries & Territories

49th Parallel- Boundary line set between the United States and the British- Canada in the West (above the Louisiana Purchase)

Oregon Territory- shared between the US and the British

Adams-Onis Treaty- between the US & Spain in 1819 that set the boundary between the two nations. Also handed Florida over to the US. (Following Jackson’s invasion of Florida)

monroe doctrine 1823
Monroe Doctrine (1823)

Any intervention in affairs of the western hemisphere would be seen as an act of aggression toward the US

Included colonization of South American nations.

Big talk for such a weak nation- could we back it up????

We wouldn’t interfere in their hemisphere, they couldn’t interfere in ours.