Chapter 12. American Pageant M. Carter. War Fronts. WEST & CANADA Americans fought poorly Army was poorly trained Largely unsuccessful In Canada- attempted to fight on 3 fronts at once- poor strategy. War Fronts. At Sea Most able and well-prepared “Old Iron-sides”. “Old Ironsides”.
Ay, tear her tattered ensign down! Long has it waved on high, And many an eye has danced to see That banner in the sky; Beneath it rung the battle shout, And burst the cannon’s roar; — The meteor of the ocean air Shall sweep the clouds no more.
Her deck, once red with heroes’ blood, Where knelt the vanquished foe, When winds were hurrying o’er the flood,
And waves were white below, No more shall feel the victor’s tread, Or know the conquered knee; — The harpies of the shore shall pluck The eagle of the sea!
Oh, better that her shattered hulk Should sink beneath the wave; Her thunders shook the mighty deep, And there should be her grave; Nail to the mast her holy flag, Set every threadbare sail, And give her to the god of storms, The lightning and the gale!
Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo
British attention was no longer divided- all attention on the US
Best troops began arriving in North America
British sailed up the Chesapeake to attack the Capitol
White House and Capitol burned
Dolly Madison saved Washington’s portrait
British unable to take Baltimore
Battle at Fort McHenry
“Star Spangled Banner” by Francis Scott Key
War Hero & Indian fighter
Battle occurred two weeks after the treaty was signed- word had not reached them yet
Defeated the British
Signed in Belgium
Stalemate- “Not one Inch of Territory Ceded or Lost.”
Wanted to eliminate the 3/5 compromise because it gave the South an unfair advantage
The delegation arrived in DC at the same time as the news of the Treaty of Ghent and Jackson’s victory in New Orleans.
New England appeared traitorous and petty.
Nearly tried for treason.
Willing to fight to defend its freedom
Our diplomats were treated with more respect when abroad
Creation of war heroes- Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison
Stronger manufacturing industries
Less dependence on European imports
Between Britain and the US
Limited naval power on the Great Lakes
Stimulate the national economy
Presidency of James Monroe
Took a Goodwill Tour of the Nation
Mostly a ONE-Party system
Economy good (in the beginning)
Depression, deflation, bankruptcies, bank failure, unemployment, soup kitchens, overcrowded debtors’ prison
Brought about by the overspeculation of western land
“wildcat” (western) banks gave loans for the speculation
Led to foreclosure on farm mortgages
The unknown- mystery
Chance for a better life (“land of promise”)
Land exhaustion in the east
Indians under control
New roads connecting East and West
Land Act of 1820- cheaper land
NO more slaves allowed in Missouri
Gradual emancipation of children born to slavery
Southern slave owners- feared total emancipation
Westerners- wanted unrestricted movement to increase population = new statehood
Agreement brokered by Henry Clay- the “Great Compromiser”
Missouri enters as a SLAVE state
Maine enters as a FREE state
Balance of power is maintained
Line set at 36, 30 for future- above = FREE, below = SLAVE
MD taxing Bank of the US
Decision: Taxing bank = preventing them from operating efficiently
Declaration of Bank as Constitutional
Supported loose constructionism and concept of “implied powers”
Continued to strengthen the federal government
Decision: Right of the federal court to oversee the decisions of the state courts
Loss of state rights
Decision: interstate travel and commerce a federal issue, not a state issue
NY/NJ steamboat case
Interstate cases continue to be federal
NH tried to change the college’s original charter
Decision: a charter is a contract and it has to be upheld since it is legally binding.
Protected businesses against state encroachments and interference
Unintended effects: corporations with charters escape necessary public controls and oversight
49th Parallel- Boundary line set between the United States and the British- Canada in the West (above the Louisiana Purchase)
Oregon Territory- shared between the US and the British
Adams-Onis Treaty- between the US & Spain in 1819 that set the boundary between the two nations. Also handed Florida over to the US. (Following Jackson’s invasion of Florida)
Any intervention in affairs of the western hemisphere would be seen as an act of aggression toward the US
Included colonization of South American nations.
Big talk for such a weak nation- could we back it up????
We wouldn’t interfere in their hemisphere, they couldn’t interfere in ours.