Chapter 4: Social Structure
Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Exchange Happens whenever an interaction between people occurs Reciprocity Getting something in return when you give something Leads to the “Exchange Theory” People interact with each other in order to get something Ever stop trying to be friends with someone who didn’t try back?
Types of interaction Competition When more than 1 person tries to get something that only 1 can have. Viewed as mostly positive in western society. Conflict Defeating an opponent with the use of some kind of force. Cooperation People working together to accomplish something
Accommodation Give and take State of balance between cooperation and conflict 4 types Compromise Truce Mediation Arbitration
Contrasting Societies • Durkheim maintained that preindustrial societies are held together by mechanical solidarity. • People share same values • Organic solidarity • Impersonal social relationships
Ferdinand Tonnies Gemeinschaft German for ‘community’ most members know each other close, personal relationships similar to mechanical solidarity Gesellschaft German for ‘society’ relationships are needs based impersonal and temporary similar to organic solidarity
The structure of Groups and Societies (Section 4) What is a group? 1. must be at least 2 people 2. must be some kind of interaction 3. set of shared expectations 4. some sense of common identity What if one or more of the qualifications are missing? You have an aggregate.
The structure of Groups and Societies (continued) How do Sociologists group people? By putting them into “social categories” They do this by asking three basic questions: 1. How often does the group meet? 2. Is it a formal or informal group? 3. How large is the group? A 2 person group is a dyad A 3 person group is a triad A ‘small group’ is made up of 4 to 15
Typical Groups Within a Society Primary Groups Small group with long-term, intimate and informal relationships Secondary Groups Large groups with formal, impersonal and short-term relationships Reference Groups A group that a person identifies with and adopts the values of Important because of effects on behavior
Typical Groups Within a Society (continued) Ingroup The group which a person identifies most Outgroup The group which a person does not identify with E-Communities People interact online Facebook, MySpace, etc…
The Structure of Formal Organizations (Section 5) Max Weber’s Model of Beauracracies: Division of Labor Ranking of Authority Formal Qualifications Rules and regulations Formal lines of promotion
The Structure of Formal Organizations (continued) Criticisms of Bureaucracies They become self-perpetuating “The Peter Principle” Employees are promoted to their level of incompetence. Red Tape Result in oligarchies “Parkinson’s Law” work expands to fill time available
Comparing American and Japanese workers American Japanese Average of 3 years at a job Expect quick promotions Office workers specialize Formal written rules Most decisions are made at upper levels Americans like to ‘pass the buck’ Little corporate care for workers Guaranteed lifetime job Promotions/evaluations may take up to 10 years Office workers do not specialize “Corporate Culture” Decisions can involve 80 people Workers share collectively in blame/success Like extended families