The African Slave Trade - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The African Slave Trade

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  1. The African Slave Trade Chapter 18 (pp. 518 - 534)

  2. Introduction • Africans had been involved in slave trade prior to colonization of Americas • Most pre-industrial societies (including Africa) practiced slavery

  3. The African Slave Trade • Before the Atlantic slave trade began, slavery took many forms • Voluntary • Debtors • “Chattel”= viewed as property • African slaves went to two parts of the world: • The Western Hemisphere • Islamic Lands (Middle East & India)

  4. Trade to ISLAMIC Lands • Developed prior to Atlantic slave trade • Fewer slaves than Atlantic system • Many slaves were female • Became household servants or part of a harem • Could became wives for wealthy individuals • Males used as laborers or to fight in armies • Rarely hereditary

  5. Trade to the Americas • Slaves were needed due to loss of Native American laborers (warfare, disease, etc.) • Process of transporting slaves could be very expensive (shipwrecks, disease, mutiny, piracy, etc.)

  6. The Atlantic Circuit (Triangular Trade) • First leg: Manufactured goods (guns, textiles, etc.) from Europe to Africa • Second leg (the Middle Passage): African slaves to the New World • Third leg: Plantation goods (cash crops, raw materials, etc.) back to Europe • Involved the movement of goods, wealth, and free and unfree laborers, and the mixing of African, American, and European cultures and peoples

  7. Plantation Systems in the Americas • Located in Brazil, the Caribbean and southern North America • Increased the demand for slaves in the Americas • Mostly male • Produced cash crops • Sugar cane, tobacco, etc. • Expensive • Plantocracy

  8. Demographic and Environment Changes (1450 – 1750) • Major population shifts • A rise in the population of Europe • A decrease in the population of the Americas • No overall population decreased in Africa • Major environmental changes • Soil exhaustion • Deforestation

  9. The Atlantic Economy • 15th and 16th century Atlantic trade • Controlled by Spanish and Portuguese governments • American silver to Europe and Asia • Expensive and inefficient

  10. The Atlantic Economy • In the 17th and 18th centuries • Controlled by British, French and Dutch • Royal governments developed privately owned charter companies • Monopolies • Joint-stock companies • More efficient and profitable • Promoted mercantilism